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A.L. McFarland, T.M. Waliczek, and J.M. Zajicek

in students. These factors also contributed to student life, and student happiness must be considered in relation to many other environmental factors in addition to curriculum ( Hendershott et al., 1991 ). Research has reported that undergraduate

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Amy L. McFarland

Research investigating the relationship between physical environments and various aspects of quality of life have found that people who live or work near natural areas have improved health and increased levels of satisfaction at home, work, and with life in general. Research has also shown that workers who performed their job function in offices with windows or interior plants had higher job satisfaction. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between the use of green spaces and public gardens in the work place on mental well-being, overall quality of life, and job satisfaction. The sample for this study was drawn from participants who were on the contact list of public garden employees and volunteers for a winter in-service training hosted by the Smithsonian Gardens (Washington, DC). Participants were e-mailed asking for their participation in the survey. An incentive of winning a greenhouse tour was used to improve the response rate. A total of 105 usable surveys were received out of 423 invitations that were sent for a response rate of 24.8%. Participants were asked to respond to questions regarding their work environment, mental well-being, overall quality of life, and job satisfaction. Differences were identified based on whether the participant was a paid employee or unpaid worker. Based on time spent outdoors during the workday, the only difference within the overall group existed with regard to how frequently the participant ate outdoors and their reported mental well-being. On the quality of life questions, differences for the overall sample, the paid group, and the unpaid group were found for having window views of plants or nature. On the job satisfaction question, differences were identified in the overall sample and the paid group for having a window in their immediate office or workplace. Several variables did not identify any statistically significant difference, which might result from this sample being already largely connected to nature due to their employment or volunteer work within a public garden.

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T.M. Waliczek, J.M. Zajicek, and R.D. Lineberger

A survey based on the Life Satisfaction Inventory A (LSIA) was used to investigate gardeners' and nongardeners' perceptions of life satisfaction. The LSIA was developed in 1961 by Neugarten and measures five components of quality of life including zest for life, resolution and fortitude, congruence between desired and achieved goals, high physical, psychological and social self-concept, and a happy optimistic mood tone. The survey was posted for four months on one of the largest online resources for Texas Master Gardeners within the Aggie Horticulture network, the Texas Master Gardener Web page ( During the 4 months, 402 responses were gathered. Additionally, identical `paper/pencil' format surveys were distributed to garden, church, social and community groups with about 400 responses received. In each group of participants, respondents differentiated themselves as gardeners or nongardeners by responding positively or negatively to the survey question, Do you garden? Results indicated statistically significant differences in comparisons of the overall life satisfaction scores with gardeners receiving higher mean scores indicating more positive results on the LSIA. When responses to individual statements were analyzed, results indicated statistically significant differences on 20% of the statements. Differences were detected on statements relating to energy levels, optimism, zest for life, and physical self-concept with gardeners answering more positively on all statements when compared to nongardeners' responses. Additionally, gardeners rated their overall health and their physical activity levels higher than did nongardeners.

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Claudia C. Collins and Angela M. O'Callaghan

staff while requiring less staff care. They self-reported being active and happy (self-rated happiness) with increased perceptions of personal control. This small intervention showed dramatic results in an environment where decision-making otherwise

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T. W. Young, G. H. Snyder, F. G. Martin, and N. C. Hayslip


‘Christian Dior’ and ‘Happiness’ roses on Rosa fortuniana stock, fertilized with 3 rates each of N, P, and K factorially combined, were grown for 3 years at Ft. Pierce, Florida. All fertilizer was applied at the beginning of the experiment under plastic mulch just before the bushes were planted. About 2300 lb./A of N on ‘Christian Dior’ and 2100 lb. on ‘Happiness’ produced the greatest number of flowers. Leaf N at 18 months was also maximized by 2100 lb. N. Nitrogen levels maximizing stem lengths were slightly lower. The independent effects of P were minor and low levels best, perhaps because residual soil P at start of the study was adequate. Flower production decreased with K fertilization beyond low rates, whereas stem lengths increased to a max at about 1700 lb./A. At times, various nutrient interactions were noted. ‘Christian Dior’ consistently yielded more flowers than ‘Happiness’. With minor exceptions, ‘Happiness’ had longer stems.

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Lucy K. Bradley, Bridget K. Behe, Natalie R. Bumgarner, Charlotte D. Glen, Joseph L. Donaldson, Ellen M. Bauske, Sheri Dorn, and Gail Langellotto

economic value of many benefits of CH (such as esthetic value, happiness, environmental literacy, and ecosystem services) have not been identified, while methods for quantifying others (reduction in storm water runoff, reduced need for water treatment

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Brent K. Harbaugh, David A. DeVoll, and R. Zalewski

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station journal series no. R-07077. We thank Don Bates of Bates Sons and Daughters and Stephen Phypers of Happiness Farms for their assistance and dedication to this project. The cost of publishing this paper

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Michael R. Evans and Brent K. Harbaugh

published as Florida Agricultural Experiment Station journal series R-03045. We thank Happiness Farms and Bates and Sons Caladiums for financial and material support of this project. Use of trade names does not imply endorsement of the

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Brent K. Harbaugh and Michael R. Evans

Florida Agricultural Expt. Station Journal Series no. R-03299. We appreciate Bates Sons and Daughters and Happiness Farms, Lake Placid, Fla., for providing plant material and partial funding for this research. Use of trade names does not

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Paul W. Bosland

school garden may overcome their fears. Exposure to fruits and vegetables may encourage them to eat more of these beneficial foods. Horticulturists help to provide more nutritious foods, but we also provide ways to increase our happiness index. Parks and