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Elisabeth Hodgdon, Jennifer Bonina Noseworthy, and Rebecca Grube Sideman

(30 cm) hanging baskets. ‘Rambling Rose’ is open-pollinated and has a similar growth habit and yield compared with the red cultivars ‘Tumbler’, ‘Tumbling Tom’, ‘Terenzo’, and other cultivars developed for hanging basket production and retail plant

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Terri Woods Starman, Millie S. Williams, and James E. Faust

The objective was to determine the optimum number of plants and the number of pinches required to market a basket for hanging basket production using alternative floriculture species. The number of plants per pot varied from one to four, and the number of manual pinches per basket ranged from 0 to 2. Several species were evaluated in spring of 1996 and heat tolerance was assessed throughout the summer. Plugs (50–95 plugs per flat) were transplanted into 25-cm hanging baskets in a 22/18°C (venting/night temperature set points) glasshouse. Three to four plants were necessary for Scaevola aemula `Fancy Fan Falls' and Evolvulus glomeratus `Blue Daze' to produce a marketable basket. One plant per pot was sufficient for Abutilon hybrid `Apricot', Portulaca oleraceae `Apricot', and Tibouchina `Spanish Shaw' without sacrificing quality; however, an additional 1 to 3 weeks production time was needed in comparison to the four plants per pot treatment. Abutilon and Portulaca required one pinch, while Tibouchina did not require pinching. All plants × pinch combinations produced quality baskets with Sutera cordata `Mauve Mist' and Diascia hybrid `Ruby Fields'; therefore, production methods should be based on growers' scheduling and cost analysis. Abutilon, Evolvulus, Portulaca, Scaevola, and Tibouchina performed well in hanging baskets throughout the summer. Two species in the trial, Orthosiphon stamineus `Lavender' and Tabernamontana coronaria, displayed upright growth habits and would be best for uses other than hanging basket production.

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J.G. Norcini, J.M. McDowell, and J.H. Aldrich

The use of dikegulac foliar sprays in production of 4.5-liter hanging baskets (25.4-cm in diameter) of `Barbara Karst' bougainvillea [Bougainvillea ×buttiana (Bougainvillea glabra Choicy X Bougainvillea peruviana Humb. & Bonpl.) `Barbara Karst'] and `Rainbow Gold' bougainvillea (Bougainvillea `Rainbow Gold') was investigated under high temperatures (27.5-32C) and two production seasons (late spring to early summer and midsummer to early fall). During the late production season, liners pruned at transplanting (0 weeks) and treated with 1600 mg dikegulac/liter at 0 and 4 weeks resulted in plants with more flowers than that of controls (pruned only at 0 and 4 weeks), with `Barbara Karst' having a slightly compact, pendulous growth habit similar to that of controls. Dikegulac enhanced flowering compared with controls during midspring to early summer, but it did not result in plants with a slightly compact pendulous growth habit. These results suggest that a foliar spray of 1600 mg dikegulac/liter could substitute for the second pruning during hanging basket production of `Barbara Karst'. Chemical name used: sodium salt of 2,3:4,6-bis-O-(1-methylethylidene)-α-xylo-2-hexulofuranosonic acid (dikegulac-sodium).

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Terri Woods Starman and James E. Faust

The objective was to provide options for hanging basket production schedules by varying the number of plants per pot (one to four) and the number of manual pinches per basket (zero to two). Several species were evaluated in Spring 1995 and heat tolerance was assessed throughout the summer. Plugs (82 plugs per flat) were transplanted into 25-cm hanging baskets in a 22/18°C (venting/night temperature set points) glasshouse. Bacopa speciosa `Snowflake', Brachycome iberidifolia `Crystal Falls', Helichrysum bracteatum `Golden Beauty', Scaevola aemula `New Blue Wonder', and Streptocarpella hybrid `Concord Blue' produced quality baskets with three or more plugs per basket and no pinch. Pentas lanceolata `Starburst' and Lysimachia procumbens (Golden Globes) produced quality baskets with fewer than three plants per basket if plants received at least one pinch, however length of growing time was increased. Pentas lanceolata `Starburst', Scaevola aemula `New Blue Wonder', and Streptocarpella hybrid `Concord Blue' proved to be heat tolerant, blooming throughout the summer. Bacopa speciosa `Snowflake', Brachycome iberidifolia `Crystal Falls', and Lysimachia procumbens (Golden Globes) were not heat tolerant, i.e., ceased developing flowers in June and resumed flowering in September. Bidens ferulifolium did not produce an acceptable quality hanging basket under any experimental treatments.

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James E. Faust, Pamela C. Korczynski, and Uttara C. Samarakoon

quality ( Pasian, 1994 ). A greater understanding of how hanging baskets affect the greenhouse light environment will allow for the optimization of crop production; i.e., maximizing hanging basket production while minimizing the reduction in bench or floor