Gypsophila paniculata , a flowering plant of the Caryophyllaceae family, is a small perennial herbaceous shrub ≈1 m tall and ≈1 m wide ( Toaima et al., 2016 ; Vettori et al., 2015 ). It is normally characterized by a rosette of grayish green basal
Fan Li, Guoxian Wang, Rongpei Yu, Min Wu, Qinli Shan, Lifang Wu, Jiwei Ruan and Chunmei Yang
George Gizas and Dimitrios Savvas
performance of four representative greenhouse crops (rose, gypsophila, cucumber, and lettuce) on four types of pumice differing in particle size (0 to 2, 0 to 5, 0 to 8, and 4 to 8 mm) placed either in bags or in pots. To assess the growth and yield
Julie P. Newman, Linda L. Dodge and Michael S. Reid
Commercial floral products with claimed anti-ethylene effects were evaluated for their efficacy in promoting postharvest longevity of gypsophila (`Perfecta', `Gilboa', and `Golan' baby's breath, Gypsophila paniculata L.). These products were applied according to label directions and compared to a laboratory preparation of silver thiosulfate (STS) prepared as a short pulse treatment and as an overnight treatment; they were also compared to the new anti-ethylene gas, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). After these pretreatments, the flowers were exposed to ambient air or to 0.7 ppm ethylene gas for 36 hours; other flowers received a simulated shipping treatment. Products containing adequate concentrations of silver consistently extended the display life of gypsophila. Products with low concentrations of silver (<10 ppm) or containing aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) offered no more protection than treatments without anti-ethylene compounds. Overnight treatments with STS were as effective as short pulse treatments. Although 1-MCP pretreatment helped prevent the effects of ethylene on flowers that were open at the time of pretreatment, it provided no protection for buds that opened subsequently. There were no marked differences in ethylene sensitivity among three gypsophila cultivars.
Julie P. Newman, Michael S. Reid and Linda Dodge
Commercial formulations of silver thiosulfate (STS) were evaluated for their efficacy in promoting postharvest longevity of gypsophila. Argylene, Chrysal AVB, Chrysal OVB, Oasis Dry Flower Conditioner, Rogard RS, and Silflor were compared to the anionic STS complex and to Physan plus sucrose. Flowers were pulse treated, then placed overnight at 2° C in Physan plus sucrose. Flowers treated with Rogard RS, Chrysal OVB, and Physan were held continuously in the solution. Overnight treatments of STS were compared to short pulses at higher concentrations. To simulate the effect of shipment, treated flowers were packed in boxes, then held either for 48 hours at room temperature (12-18° C) or for 60 hours in a range of ethylene concentrations. Individual stems were then placed in Physan plus sucrose. The number of open flowers, buds, and dead flowers was determined on each stem at various intervals. All products effectively extended the display life of gypsophila except Rogard RS and Chrysal OVB. Although overnight treatments with STS formulations were not as effective as pulse treatments, their convenience could warrant commercial use.
Peter R. Hicklenton, Suzie M. Newman and Lindsay J. Davies
The effects of night temperature (NT) and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on time to flower and flower yield in `Bristol Fairy' and `Bridal Veil' Gypsophila paniculata L. (perennial baby's breath) were studied in controlled environments. Plants were grown with nights at 8, 12, 16, and 20C and 450 or 710 μmol·s-1·m-2 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Days were at 20C. In both cultivars, the times from the start of treatments to visible bud and from visible bud to anthesis were delayed at the lower PPF and at an NT <20C. The delays in `Bristol Fairy' were greater than those in `Bridal Veil'. Failure of `Bristol Fairy' plants to reach anthesis was common at SC NT and either 450 or 710 μmol·s-1·m-2 PPF; whereas in `Bridal Veil', nearly all plants flowered, regardless of environmental conditions. Flower yield (measured as fresh weight of inflorescences) decreased with NT in `Bristol Fairy' but was highest at 8 or 12C in `Bridal Veil'. In a second experiment using the same cultivars, the effect of curtailing long-day (LD) conditions at various stages on stem elongation and flower yield was investigated. `Bristol Fairy' required more LD cycles (>56) than `Bridal Veil' for maximum stem elongation and flower yield. Terminating LD conditions before the start of inflorescence expansion resulted in lower yields and shorter plants in both cultivars.
Rik van Gorsel and Marc Ravesloot
Postharvest temperature and transport duration affect the vase life of cut flowers. necessitating temperature control throughout the marketing chain. However, in practise interruptions of this cold chain often occur, e.g. at the auction, airport or other transfer points. We investigated the effect of an early interruption of the cold chain on water loss, rate of development and vase life of four cut flower species. The experiment had a factorial design: three durations of interruption (8.16 and 40 h), each at five temperatures (8, 12, 16, 20 and 24C), and three containers (replicates) per treatment. A standard marketing chain simulation and vase life evaluation followed each treatment. Controls were 0 h interruption with and without marketing chain simulation. The experiment was carried out twice for each species. Water loss was proportional to vapor pressure deficit, with a sometimes synergistic effect of temperature. A short exposure to 20C accelerated the development of all flower species compared to continuous 8C. The effect of the higher temperature became more apparent later in the marketing chain. Averaged over the interruption temperatures, a one-day delay in the marketing chain resulted in a one day (Aster and Gypsophila) to three days (Dianthus and Chrysanthemum) decrease in vase life. A temperature of 20C for 40 hours reduced the vase life by 30% to 40% compared to continuous 8C.
David Hillock and James E. Klett
Four herbaceous perennials Aquilegia caerulea `McKana's Giant', Gaillardia aristata, Gypsophila paniculata `Fairy's Pink', and Callirhoe involucrata were subjected to increasing levels of drought stress and evaluated for ornamental quality and performance in the landscape. Drought stress was imposed by irrigation treatments of 100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, and 0% of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) in 1994. Irrigation treatments resulted in Aquilegia exhibiting a decline in plant growth and appearance below the 50% ET0 treatment. Callirhoe grown at the 100% ET0 irrigation treatment were larger than the plants in any other treatment. Gaillardia receiving some irrigation (25% to 100% ET0) were generally larger than those that received no supplemental irrigation (0% ET0). A decline in plant appearance and growth was observed with Gypsophila with lowering irrigation treatments.
Anne M. Hanchek and Arthur C. Cameron
The effect of harvest dates between September and December on regrowth after storage of field-grown Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg × Sweet `Sunburst' and `Sunray', Geum quellyon Sweet `Mrs. Bradshaw', Gypsophila paniculata L. `Snowflake', Iberis sempervirens L. `Snowflake', and Dicentra spectabilis (L.) Lem. crowns was determined. After 0 to 7 months of storage at 0C, stored crowns were repotted and grown in a greenhouse. Plants from later harvests were of higher quality than those from earlier harvests, showing higher rates of survival after longer storage periods, less mold development in storage, and stronger regrowth after storage. Late field harvest is recommended for optimum storage quality.
James E. Klett, David Hillock and David Staats
Herbicides were applied to container-grown herbaceous perennials and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. During the 1995 season six preemergent herbicides [(in kg·ha–1) Napropamide (Devrinol 10G), 4.5 and 9.1; Isoxaben (Gallery 75DF), 1.1 and 2.3; Oxadiazon (Ronstar 2G), 4.5 and 9.1; Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout 3G), 3.4 and 13.6; Oryzalin (Surflan AS), 2.8 and 4.5; and Trifluralin (Treflan 5G) 4.5 and 9.1, were tested on Callirhoe involucrata, Delosperma nubigenum, Dendranthemum ×morifolium `Jennifer', Festuca cinerea `Sea Urchin', and Gypsophila paniculata `Fairy's Pink'. Isoxaben (both rates) resulted in visual phytotoxicity symptoms and sometimes death to Dendranthemum. Oxadiazon (9.1 kg·ha–1) and Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (both rates) resulted in plant chlorosis and necrosis to Delosperma soon after herbicide application, but plants outgrew herbicide damage. Napropamide (both rates), applied to Delosperma, resulted in less dry weight when compared to some of the other herbicide treatments. Oryzalin (4.5 kg·ha–1) resulted in visual phytotoxicity and less plant dry weight to Festuca. Data analysis revealed no significant differences in Callirhoe and Gypsophila. In general, most herbicides controlled weeds effectively.
Andrew J. Macnish, Ria T. Leonard and Terril A. Nell
The postharvest longevity of fresh-cut flowers is often limited by the accumulation of bacteria in vase water and flower stems. Aqueous chlorine dioxide is a strong biocide with potential application for sanitizing cut flower solutions. We evaluated the potential of chlorine dioxide to prevent the build-up of bacteria in vase water and extend the longevity of cut Matthiola incana `Ruby Red', Gypsophila paniculata `Crystal' and Gerbera jamesonii `Monarch' flowers. Fresh-cut flower stems were placed into sterile vases containing deionized water and either 0.0 or 2 μL·L–1 chlorine dioxide. Flower vase life was then judged at 21 ± 0.5 °C and 40% to 60% relative humidity. Inclusion of 2 μL·L–1 chlorine dioxide in vase water extended the longevity of Matthiola, Gypsophila and Gerbera flowers by 2.2, 3.5, and 3.4 days, respectively, relative to control flowers (i.e., 0 μL·L–1). Treatment with 2 μL·L–1 chlorine dioxide reduced the build-up of aerobic bacteria in vase water for 6 to 9 days of vase life. For example, addition of 2 μL·L–1 chlorine dioxide to Gerbera vase water reduced the number of bacteria that grew by 2.4- to 2.8-fold, as compared to control flower water. These results confirm the practical value of chlorine dioxide treatments to reduce the accumulation of bacteria in vase water and extend the display life of cut flowers.