A common cultural practice in greenhouse production is to apply plant growth retardants (PGRs) to produce uniform, compact, and marketable plants. Plant growth retardants can be applied in several ways, including foliar sprays, substrate drenches
Christopher J. Currey, Diane M. Camberato, Ariana P. Torres, and Roberto G. Lopez
Cheryl Hamaker, William H. Carlson, Royal D. Heins, and Arthur C. Cameron
Twenty species of perennials were trialed to determine the effectiveness of five growth retardants on final plant height and flowering. Growth retardant treatments consisted of five sprays: 100 ppm ancymidol, 1500 ppm chlormequat, 5000 ppm daminozide, 30 ppm paclobutrazol, or 15 ppm uniconazole. Also included for comparison were two drenches of 15 ppm paclobutrazol or 7.5 ppm uniconazole. Spray treatments consisted of one application every 10 days until anthesis. Drench treatments consisted of one application only. Data for days to visible bud and anthesis, bud number, and final height were collected. Plant response varied significantly between growth retardant treatments. Sprays of ancymidol, chlormequat, daminozide, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole effectively controlled the height of 4, 3, 13, 4, and 12 species, respectively. Daminozide and uniconazole were the most effective sprays at controlling height on a broad range of species. However, daminozide delayed anthesis compared to control treatments of at least 5 species. Drench treatments of paclobutrazol and uniconazole were effective on 14 and 15 species, respectively. The number of responsive species increased significantly when paclobutrazol was used as a drench rather than a spray. All species tested were responsive to at least one growth retardant treatment.
Peter Alem, Paul A. Thomas, and Marc W. van Iersel
conditions such as temperature and light levels ( Moe et al., 1992b ). Fig. 1. Poinsettia ‘Classic Red’ height response to plant growth retardant (PGR) applications (spray with a mixture of daminozide and chlormequat chloride or drench with paclobutrazol) and
Josh B. Henry, Ingram McCall, and Brian E. Whipker
, diameter, and dry weight, where GI = [height + (diameter 1 + diameter 2)/2 + dry weight]/3. Models represent plants grown with or without a plant growth retardant (PGR) drench of 4 mg (1.4 × 10 −4 oz) a.i. paclobutrazol per pot. The intersection of the two
Nicholas J. Flax, Christopher J. Currey, James A. Schrader, David Grewell, and William R. Graves
growth retardants are frequently used in bedding-plant production to restrict growth of plants, as they can be easily applied without adversely affecting other crops in the same environment. Plant growth retardants are often applied as foliar sprays, but
J. Million, J. Barrett, D. Clark, and T. Nell
Trials involving growth retardants applied in subirrigation water were conducted to evaluate the potential for this method of application and to determine critical concentrations for production of several floriculture crops. Eight concentrations of paclobutrazol or ancymidol ranging from 0 to 0.1 mg·liter–1 were applied continuously (from planting) to five crops. Based upon regression equations, paclobutrazol concentrations resulting in 20% size reduction were 0.005, 0.024, 0.017, >0.1, and >0.1 mg·liter–1 for begonia, chrysanthemum, impatiens, petunia, and salvia, respectively; for ancymidol, respective concentrations were 0.003, 0.01, 0.10, >0.1, and 0.058 mg·liter–1. A second set of trials compared the efficacy of a one-time vs. continuous application of paclobutrazol via subirrigation starting at 2 to 3 weeks after planting. For begonia, a one-time subirrigation application of 0.01 mg·liter–1 paclobutrazol resulted in 30% size reduction, while 0.003 mg·liter–1 applied continuously resulted in 20% size reduction. For impatiens, a one-time subirrigation application of 0.1 mg·liter–1 paclobutrazol resulted in 31% size reduction while 0.03 mg·liter–1 applied continuously resulted in 40% size reduction.
Douglas A. Bailey and William B. Miller
Plants of Euphorbia pulcherrima Wind. `Glory' were grown under total irradiances of 13.4, 8.5, or 4.0 mol·m-2·day-1 and sprayed with water (control), 2500 mg daminozide/liter + 1500 mg chlormequat chloride/liter (D + C), 62.5 mg paclobutrazol/liter, or 4, 8, 12, or 16 mg uniconazole/liter to ascertain plant developmental and postproduction responses to treatment combinations. Anthesis was delayed for plants grown under the lowest irradiance. Anthesis was delayed by the D + C treatment, whereas other growth retardant treatments had no effect on anthesis date. Irradiance did not affect plant height at anthesis, but all growth retardant treatments decreased height over control plants. Inflorescence and bract canopy diameters were decreased at the lowest irradiance level. Growth retardants did not affect individual inflorescence diameters, but all, except paclobutrazol and 4 and 8 mg uniconazole/liter, reduced bract canopy diameter compared with control plants. Plants grown under the lowest irradiance developed fewer inflorescences per plant and fewer cyathia per inflorescence. Cyathia abscission during a 30-day postanthesis evaluation increased as irradiance was decreased; cyathia abscission was unaffected by growth retardant treatment. Leaf abscission after 30 days postanthesis was lowest for plants grown under the lowest irradiance. At 30 days postanthesis, all growth retardant treatments increased leaf abscission over controls. Results indicate that irradiance and growth retardant treatments during production can affect poinsettia crop timing, plant quality at maturity, and subsequent postproduction performance. Chemical names used: 2-chloroethyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (chlormequat chloride); butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethyl hydrazide) (daminozide); β-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]- α -(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol), (E)-1-(p-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-l-penten-3-ol (uniconazole, XE-1019).
Gonzalo Morales-Salazar, Jose P. Morales-Payan, and Bielinski M. Santos
The effect of three plant growth retardants, bitertanol, tradimefon, and hexaconazole, on short-term vine regrowth of pruned `Arabe' grape (Vitis vinifera) was studied in field experiments conducted in the Dominican Republic. Individual soil drench treatments of the three retardants were applied to adult pruned `Arabe' grape plants at rates 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 g active ingredient per plant. Three weeks after treatment, bitertanol did not have a significant effect on vegetative growth, whereas triadimefon and hexaconazole caused significant reductions on vine regrowth. The effect of triadimefon as a growth retardant was stronger than that of hexaconazole, as described by regression equations Y = 30.88 - 25.68X for triadimefon, and Y = 32.9 - 15.2X for hexaconazole.
Yin-Tung Wang and Tsung-Yao Hsu
Bare-root, mature, hybrid Phalaenopsis seedlings were dipped in one of three growth retardant solutions for 5 seconds or sprayed with a growth retardant 4 weeks following planting during inflorescence elongation. Dipping the entire plant in daminozide (2500, 5000, or 7500 mg·liter-1) before planting delayed flowering by 5-13 days, whereas foliar applications had no effect. Paclobutrazol (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg·liter-1) or uniconazole (25, 50, 100, or 200 mg·liter-1) dips did not affect the bloom date but effectively restricted inflorescence growth below the first flower (stalk). Increasing concentrations produced progressively less growth. Foliarly applied retardant treatments were less effective than dipping. Flower size, flower count, and stalk thickness were unaffected by treatments. Dipping in high concentrations of paclobutrazol (200 or 400 mg·liter-1) or uniconazole (100 or 200 mg·liter-1) caused plants to produce small, thick leaves. During the second bloom season, inflorescence emergence and bloom date were progressively delayed by increasing concentrations of paclobutrazol and uniconazole. Neither retardant affected flower count or size. Foliarly applied daminozide increased stalk length. In another experiment, foliar paclobutrazol treatment restricted stalk growth more effectively when sprayed before inflorescence emergence. Its effect progressively decreased when treatment was delayed. Paclobutrazol concentrations from 125 to 500 mg·liter-1 were equally effective in limiting stalk elongation when applied to the foliage. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); (E)-1- (p -chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1-penten-3-ol(uniconazole); (2 RS, 3 RS) -1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1 H- 1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) pentan-3-ol (paclobutrazol).
M.W. Duck, B.M. Cregg, R.T. Fernandez, R.D. Heins, and F.F. Cardoso
Tabletop Christmas tree growers whose greenhouse-grown conifers have undesirable shoot growth may alleviate this problem by applying plant growth retardants (PGRs). Some of the most common PGRs in the horticulture industry were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in controlling plant height: ancymidol at 100 μL·L-1 (ppm), daminozide at 5000 μL·L-1, paclobutrazol at 60 μL·L-1, chlormequat at 1500 μL·L-1, uniconazole at 15 μL·L-1, and ethephon at 500 μL·L-1 compared to a nontreated control. The following conifer species were used: colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens), black hills spruce (P. glauca var. densata), serbian spruce (P. omorika), noble fir (Abies procera), grand fir (A. grandis), fraser fir (A. fraseri), concolor fir (A. concolor), arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis), port orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), and douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Chlormequat was the only PGR that caused phytotoxicity and damage to the foliage was minimal. Noble fir, douglas-fir, colorado blue spruce, and arborvitae were unaffected by any PGR treatment. Daminozide reduced growth of port orford cedar and concolor fir; uniconazole reduced growth of black hills spruce and serbian spruce; paclobutrazol reduced growth of fraser fir; and ethephon reduced growth of grand fir.