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C.L. Chu

Our study found that storage temperature, storage atmosphere and growing region interactively affect the probability of internal browning disorder in `McIntosh' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Higher incidence of internal browning occurred in apples stored for 6 months at 1 °C (34 °F) in controlled atmosphere (CA) with 2.5% O2 + 1.5% CO2 or in CA with 1.0% O2 + 0.5% CO2 than apples stored at 1 °C in air or stored at 3 °C (37 °F) in air or CA conditions. The magnitude of the incidence of internal browning varied among apples harvested from different growing regions. Apples from London, Ontario, Canada were less tolerant to these two storage conditions and therefore greater number of fruit developed internal browning than apples from other regions. In addition, apples from the London growing region and stored at 1 °C in CA with 1.0% O2 + 0.5% CO2 had greater probability of internal browning than apples stored at 1 °C in CA with 2.5% O2 + 1.5% CO2. However, there was no difference between these two CA storage conditions in causing internal browning among apples harvested from other three growing regions. Few apples showed internal browning when they were stored at 3 °C, no matter of what storage atmosphere was used. Therefore, internal browning disorder can be avoided or significantly reduced by storing apples at 3 instead of 1 °C, in these two CA conditions. Internal browning disorder will not be a risk if apples are stored in air at 1 or 3 °C.

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Bernadine C. Strik, Teryl R. Roper, Carolyn J. DeMoranville, Joan R. Davenport, and Arthur P. Poole

This research was undertaken to document the extent of biennial bearing in flowering uprights by American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait) cultivar and growing region. Seven cultivars were studied: three found in all states considered (Massachusetts, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Oregon), two common to Massachusetts and New Jersey, and two other commercially grown cultivars, one each from Wisconsin and Oregon. There were significant cultivar, region, and cultivar × region interaction effects for both percent return bloom (%RB) and percent return fruit (%RF). Percent RB ranged from 74% for `Ben Lear' in Wisconsin to 14% for `Howes' in New Jersey. `Ben Lear' differed the most in %RB among regions, from 74% in Wisconsin to 14% in Massachusetts. However, in some regions, especially in Wisconsin, many blossoms did not set viable fruit. There was no significant difference in %RB among cultivars grown in Massachusetts or Oregon; however, cultivars grown in these regions did differ in %RF.

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G. Steven Sibbett

Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch)] soils in the arid western United States are characteristically high in pH, calcareous, and often saline or sodic. Economic production, when trees are grown in such soils, requires that growers pay particular attention to managing soil chemistry to avoid nutrient deficiencies, toxicities, or water deficits due to soil structural deterioration. Soil-applied acidulents, calcium-containing compounds, and water management are used by growers to manage high pH problems, sodic soil conditions, and salinity.

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George E. Boyhan, Reid L. Torrance, Jeff Cook, Cliff Riner, and C. Randell Hill

of 4 years, ‘Sweet Vidalia’ has been trialed in the Vidalia-growing region, it has had the highest number of seedstems of all varieties tested. Jumbo yields were also mixed with the high-density treatment having greater yields in the 2005–06 season

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George E. Boyhan, Reid L. Torrance, Jeff Cook, Cliff Riner, and C. Randell Hill

Onion is an important crop in Georgia, with a farm gate value over $125 million in 2005 ( Boatright and McKissick, 2006 ). This important commodity is produced in southeastern Georgia in the Vidalia-growing region, which is protected by Federal

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George E. Boyhan and C. Randy Hill

., Chapel Hill, NC) were sown on 1 Oct. All of these seeds were chosen because they were untreated and represent midseason onion varieties in the Vidalia-growing region of southeastern Georgia. In 2004, there were insufficient seeds of any one variety

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S. Kaan Kurtural, Lydia F. Wessner, and Geoffrey Dervishian

presented here were more successful in reducing the non-count shoot number contribution to the canopy architecture. Optimum light penetration within the fruit zone will vary with the growing region and cultivar ( Dokoozlian and Kliewer, 1995 ). Compared with

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Lisa W. DeVetter, Sean Watkinson, Ramesh Sagili, and Timothy Lawrence

assess the relationship between honey bee activity, growing region, and select yield components. Additionally, we also surveyed honey bee colony strength to monitor this variable’s relationship to honey bee activity and measured yield components

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Victor M. Guerrero-Prieto, Mirna Carrasco, Alberto Rodriguez, and Don W. Smith

Red Delicious apple is the second most important cultivar grown in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico. Red Delicious apple is well known for pollination problems which can reduce yield. Previous research suggested female sterility might account for irregular fruit set in the apple growing region of Chihuahua. Pollen tube growth and ovule longevity were examined in 1990 under field conditions in Chihuahua. Fluorescent light with Aniline Blue dye was used to determine pollen tube growth and ovule viability. Five days after pollination, 86% of the styles sampled had pollen tubes through the entire style and only 1% of the ovules were non-viable. These results do not support female sterility as the cause of irregular fruit set. Future research might be directed to the question of pollen viability on the stigma.

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B.C. Strik, T.R. Roper, C.J. DeMoranville, J.R. Davenport, and A.P. Poole

Biennial bearing has long been thought to occur in cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait). Researchers have shown that percent return bloom on fruiting uprights can range from 12% to 65% depending on year, bed vigor and cultivar. Resource limitation and/or hormonal factors in a fruiting upright may be related to flower bud initiation and, thus, percent return bloom the following year. This research was undertaken to determine the extent of biennial bearing by cranberry cultivar and growing region. Seven cultivars were studied; three found in all states (MA, NJ, WI, OR), two common to MA and NJ, and two different cultivars in WI and OR representing cultivars commercially grown in these areas. In the fall or winter of 1989/1990 six 2-m transects were randomly selected within a cranberry bed for each cultivar. Along the transect, 60 uprights that fruited in 1989 were tagged. In the summer of 1990, fifty of the uprights will be sampled to determine percent return bloom and percent set.