The soft-bodied larvae of fungus gnats ( Bradysia spp.) reside in growing medium and require constant moisture for survival ( Ellisor, 1934 ). Moisture content is an essential factor responsible for the development and survival of insect stages
; Gillespie and Menzies, 1993 ; Jarvis et al., 1993 ). Contact insecticides or insect growth regulators applied as a drench to the growing medium are commonly used by greenhouse producers to suppress fungus gnat larval populations ( Cloyd and Dickinson, 2006
). Growers often design their own mixes using compost and other organic amendments. Organic growers largely depend on compost to manage nutrient requirements of growing transplants. Incorporation of large proportions of compost in the growing medium is not
; Harris et al., 1995 ; Wright and Chambers, 1994 ). The rove beetle, Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), is a commercially available predator of greenhouse insect pests, including fungus gnat larvae, that resides in the growing medium
Marantaceae or arrowroot family and is a perennial evergreen herb ( Tran et al., 2013 ). Greenhouse production of peacock arrowroot and other ornamental plants requires a suitable growing medium, and peacock arrowroot grows best in an acidic growing medium or
transplant production systems, beneficial microbial colonies may be slow to develop and could be stimulated by soil priming with carbon sources. Priming of the growing medium in this context is defined as improving its “readiness” to receive a selected crop
-Mix 560 (The Scott's Company, Marysville, OH) than in either SB300 Universal Professional Growing Mix (Strong-Lite Horticulture Products, Pine Bluff, AK) or Sunshine LC1 Mix (Sungro Horticulture, Inc., Bellevue, WA) growing medium. Metro-Mix 560 consists
Common liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha L.) is an increasingly troublesome weed in containerized plant production. Postemergence applications were made to try to eradicate established stands of liverwort. Treatments consisted of sprays of quinoclamine at 1× and 2× rates and oxadiazon at the highest label rate, broadcast applications of sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate at 1x and 3x rates and four granular herbicides (flumioxazin, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin, and prodiamine) applied at label rates. The granular herbicides were applied both alone and with the sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate treatments. Herbicides were applied to common liverwort growing on an 80% aged pine bark: 20% Sphagnum peat-based soilless growing medium contained in 10-cm diameter plastic pots located in a double-poly covered greenhouse. At 2 weeks after treatment (WAT), control was best (93% to 100%) for both quinoclamine and the 3× peroxyhydrate treatments, intermediate (68% to 83%) for the 1× peroxyhydrate treatments, and not significant for any of the preemergence herbicides used alone. At 4 WAT, slight regrowth was evident in plots in which the treatments had an initial effect and the 1x peroxyhydrate + flumioxazin was as effective as the 3× peroxyhydrate and the 2× quinoclamine treatments. At 6 WAT, control was excellent in the 3× peroxyhydrate and 1× peroxyhydrate + flumioxazin treatments. Control was less, but still evident, in the quinoclamine and other 1× peroxyhydrate treated plots. While none of the treatments had completely eradicated common liverwort in all replications at 10 WAT, control was still excellent to good in many of the peroxyhydrate + preemergence herbicide-treated plots.
Increased consumer demand for poultry products has created a poultry waste disposal problem. Previous research demonstrated that a growing medium containing 50% composted broiler litter sustained plant growth as well as commercially available alternatives with no objectionable odor. The objective of this research was to determine consumer perceptions to develop a marketing strategy for this product. One-hundred eighty consumers participated in an intercept-survey. Consumers rated fertility of the growing medium as the most important attribute (4.0 on 5.0 scale), followed by mix price (3.8), and color (3.4). “Organic gardening” was important to 82% while the addition of organic material to a growing medium was important to only 56% of the sample. Adding cow manure to a growing medium was desirable to more consumers (65%) than adding horse (39%) or poultry manure (40%). A marketing strategy should include “organic” terminology rather than a specific manure incorporated to deemphasize the negative perception of composted broiler litter.
Many strategies have been utilized by commercial growers to reduce leaching of nutrients from the growing medium during bedding plant production. Incorporation of controlled release fertilizers into the growing medium reduces the reliance on water-soluble fertilizers but nutrient release is usually temperature-dependent. One material that shows potential for this application is ZeoPro which combines a nutient-loaded zeolite with a synthetic apatite to supply the necessary nutrients for plant growth. Pansy (Viola × wittrockiana `Majestic Giant Yellow') seedlings were transplanted into 6-packs using a peat-perlite growing medium containing dolomitic lime but without a starter fertilizer charge. Two types of ZeoPro that differ in their nutrient-loading rates, regular ZeoPro (Hr) and ZeoPro Plus (H+), were added to the growing medium at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20% by volume. One half of the plants in each treatment received clear water only while the other half were irrigated with a 20-10-20 fertilizer solution at the rate of 100 mg.L-1 N. Shoot dry weights were higher at all ZeoPro rates in H+ media compared to their respective Hr media for both fertilized and unfertilized treatments. The highest shoot dry weights were measured for fertilized plants in media with H+ at 5, 10, and 20%. Tissue analysis showed that leaf %N, P, and K increased with the rate of Hr and H+ for unfertilized treatments. However, for fertilized treatments, while leaf %N increased, %K decreased with increasing rate of H+.