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amount of N applied for the accounting of N 2 O emissions from agricultural soils ( IPCC, 1997 ). Greenhouse gas emission variations found in the literature are due to a variety of factors ( Mosier et al., 1996 ; Smith et al., 2003 ) including crop, soil

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A qualitative systems approach to controlled environment agriculture (CEA) is presented by means of several multi-institutional projects integrated into a demonstration greenhouse at the Burlington County Resource Recovery Complex (BCRRC), N.J. The greenhouse has about 0.4 ha of production space, and is located about 800 m from the about 40-ha BCRRC landfill site. A portion of the landfill gas produced from the BCRRC site is used for microturbine electricity generation and for heating the greenhouse. The waste heat from the turbines, which are roughly 15 m from the greenhouse, is used as the main heat source for the greenhouse in the winter months, and to desalinate water when heating is not required. Recovery of this waste heat increases the energy efficiency of the four 30-kW turbines from about 25% to 75%. Within the greenhouse, aquaculture and hydroponic crop production are coupled by recycling the aquaculture effluent as a nutrient source for the plants. Both the sludge resulting from the filtered effluent and the inedible biomass from harvested plants are vermicomposted (i.e., rather than being sent to the landfill), resulting in marketable products such as soil amendments and liquid plant fertilizer. If suitably cleaned of contaminants, the CO2 from the landfill gas may be used to enrich the plant growing area within the greenhouse to increase the yield of the edible products. Landfill gas from the BCRRC site has successfully been processed to recover liquid commercial grade CO2 and contaminant-free methane-CO2, with the potential for this gas mixture to be applied as a feedstock for fuel cells or for methanol production. Carbon dioxide from the turbine exhaust may also be recovered for greenhouse enrichment. Alternatively, algal culture may be used to assimilate CO2 from the turbine exhaust into biomass, which may then be used as a biofuel, or possibly as fish feed, thus making the system more self-contained. By recycling energy and materials, the system described would displace fossil fuel use, mitigating negative environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, and generate less waste in need of disposal. Successful implementation of the coupled landfill (gas-to-energy · aquaponic · desalination) system would particularly benefit developing regions, such as those of the Greater Caribbean Basin.

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Specification for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services. PAS 2050:2011. BSI British Standards, London, UK Burnham, A. Wang, M. Wu, Y. 2006 Development and applications of GREET 2.7–The transportation vehicle-cycle model

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increased global temperature. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Production The agriculture industry in the United States is one of the largest contributors to GHG emissions behind energy production ( Johnson et al., 2007 ). Carbon dioxide, CH 4

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( Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005 ). In response to the concerns over increasing greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), “carbon footprints” are widely understood in the local vernacular as an indicator of global warming. Carbon footprints are expressed in units

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assessment is a tool that has been used to evaluate the environmental portion of the triple-bottom-line of products from cradle to grave or defined subsets of their life cycle. Greenhouse gas emissions and the subsequent CF have been reported for nursery crop

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to grave or defined subsets of their life cycle, including agricultural products ( Debolt et al., 2009 ; Koerber et al., 2009 ; Payraudeau and van der Werf, 2005 ). Greenhouse gas emissions and the subsequent CF of nursery crops have been reported

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on global warming potential of greenhouse gas emissions during the production system components (materials, equipment use, and energy overhead) for a broadleaf evergreen shrub, such as Ilex crenata ‘Bennett’s Compacta’, in a no. 3 container in an

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material, size, and design sophistication increase perceived home value Journal of Environmental Horticulture 23 127 133 British Standards, B.S.I. 2011 Specification for the assessment of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of goods and services. BSI

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impacts of interrelated input components and processes of a product or practice during its complete life cycle, cradle-to-grave ( Baumann and Tillman, 2004 ). A carbon footprint (the total amount of greenhouse gas emissions caused by an organization

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