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Theoharis Ouzounis, Eva Rosenqvist and Carl-Otto Ottosen

source in greenhouse horticulture: A simulation study Acta Hort. 801 1407 1414 Whitelam, G. Halliday, K. 2007 Light and plant development. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK Wink, M. 2010 Functions and biotechnology of plant secondary metabolites. Ann

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Guoting Liang, Junhui Liu, Jingmin Zhang and Jing Guo

antioxidant enzyme systems ( Malviya, 2015 ; Sairam et al., 2011 ), which scavenge these ROS and protect macromolecules in plant cells ( Ennajeh et al., 2009 ). Tomato is an important greenhouse horticultural crop in China, with a wide distribution and high

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Guanghua Zheng

There was a remarkable growth in China's greenhouse horticulture during the past decade. In 1989, the greenhouse area in China was 22,000 ha, but this figure reached up to 350,000 ha in 1999, about 16 times as large as that in 1989. Currently, the main greenhouse design used for commercial production is the energy conservation type—solar greenhouse—and many growers use eco-organic soilless culture for production. The substrates used for vegetable production are perlite, vermiculite, peat, coal cinder, sand, coir, sunflower stem, and sugar cane stem. Dry solid organic manure is mixed into the substrates before conducting cultivation, and then only water is for irrigation. Growing vegetables in this way improved quality, increased market value, and decreased environmental pollution.

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Margaretha Blom-Zandstra and Klaas Metselaar

Strict legislation on the release of water and nutrients into the subsoil exists in the Netherlands. Therefore, on-line monitoring and control systems are being developed to tune the supply of water and nutrients to the plants' demand for optimal control of production and reduction of system losses. In this context sensors and control systems are important tools. For Chrysanthemum, however, the effect of reduced irrigation on crop production is not well understood and more data from adequate sensors are required to establish critical soil moisture levels for an optimal crop water status and growth. We studied the effect of different soil water levels and soil desiccation in a climate chamber and under changing light intensities in a greenhouse to assess the critical soil moisture status for optimal growth of Chrysanthemum plants. Moreover, we studied the efficacy of infrared (IR) thermometry as a useful tool for on-line monitoring and control under the conditions of Dutch greenhouse horticulture. It is shown in this study that under moderate climate conditions plants start to suffer from water shortage when soil moisture potential pF reaches values below –32 kPa. Water status of the plant can very well be monitored on-line in a greenhouse as changes in leaf temperature due to water shortage can be detected by IR thermometry, especially at summer radiation levels. In the climate chamber however, leaf temperature did not respond to changes in soil water status, suggesting that the environmental settings of the climate chamber are unsuitable for these kind of experiments. In two of the three experiments at different levels of global radiation a change in leaf temperature is explained by a change in water regime. We conclude that regression analysis of high frequency on-line IR monitoring may be a useful tool for expost analyses of irrigation regimes at high light intensities, and may lead to interesting insights in crop responses.

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Cheryl R. Boyer, Thomas V. Gallagher, Charles H. Gilliam, Glenn B. Fain, H. Allen Torbert and Jeff L. Sibley

Residual chipping material, also called clean chip residual (CCR), has potential use as a growth substrate in the nursery and greenhouse horticultural industries. A survey was conducted in the southeastern United States among companies conducting harvesting operations on pine (Pinus sp.) plantations for the production of pulpwood in the forest industry. Fourteen operators in four states (Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Florida) were visited to evaluate the on-site status of residual material. Sample analysis of CCR revealed that it was composed of ≈37.7% wood (range, 14.2% to 50.5%), 36.6% bark (range, 16.1% to 68.5%), 8.8% needles (range, 0.1% to 19.2%), and 16.9% indistinguishable (fine) particles (range, 7.5% to 31%). pH ranged from 4.3 to 5.5 for all locations and electrical conductivity (EC) averaged 0.24 mmho/cm. Most nutrients were in acceptable ranges for plant growth with the exception of three sites above recommended levels for iron and four sites for manganese. Survey participants estimated that ≈27.5% of the harvest site biomass was composed of CCR. Some harvesters were able to sell CCR as fuelwood to pulp mills, while others did not recover the residual material and left it on the forest floor (44.3% total site biomass). Operations in this survey included typical pine plantation chipping and grinding operations (harvesters), woodyards (lumber, fuelwood, etc.), and operations processing mixed material (salvage from trees damaged in hurricanes or mixed tree species cleared from a site that was not under management as a plantation). Residual material varied depending on the plantation age, species composition, site quality, and natural actions such as fire. Average tree age was 11.5 years (range, 8 to 15 years), while average tree stand height was 37.0 ft (range, 25 to 50 ft) and average diameter at breast height (DBH) was 5.9 inches (range, 4 to 7 inches). Residual material on site was either sold immediately (28.6%), left on site for 1 to 3 months (28.6%), left on site for up to 2 years (7.1%), or not collected/sold (35.7%). Several loggers were interested in making CCR available to horticultural industries. Adequate resources are available to horticultural industries, rendering the use of CCR in ornamental plant production a viable option.

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William J. Lamont Jr

447 453 Papadopoulos, A. Demers, D. 2003 Greenhouse horticulture. Encyclopedia of food and culture 27 June 2008 < >. Wells, O.S. 1996 Rowcover and high tunnel growing systems in the United States

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Katsumi Ohyama, Junichi Yamaguchi and Ayumi Enjoji

number of PPSLs was reported to be 197 as of Mar. 2017 ( Japan Greenhouse Horticulture Association, 2017 ). Currently, leafy vegetables (e.g., lettuce) are the main products in PPSLs. Intensive research has been conducted on PPSLs ( Kozai et al., 2016

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Tadahisa Higashide and Ep Heuvelink

horticulture handbook 3rd Ed Japanese Greenhouse Horticulture Assn Tokyo, Japan [in Japanese]. Kuroda, E. Kumura, A. 1990a Difference in single leaf photosynthesis between old and new rice varieties. I Single leaf photosynthesis and its dependence on stomatal

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Tadahisa Higashide, Ken-ichiro Yasuba, Katsumi Suzuki, Akimasa Nakano and Hiromi Ohmori

. Murai (eds.). Greenhouse horticulture handbook. 3rd Ed. Japanese Greenhouse Horticulture Association, Tokyo, Japan [in Japanese] Kwantitatieve Informatie voor de Glastuinbouw 2005 Proefstation voor de bloemistrij en glasgroente (PGB). Kwantitatieve

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Mitchell Eicher-Sodo, Robert Gordon and Youbin Zheng

Plant Health Prog., doi: 10.1094/PHP-2003-0311-01-RS. Ehret, D.L. Alsanius, B. Wohanka, W. Menzies, J.G. Utkhede, R. 2001 Disinfestation of recirculating nutrient solutions in greenhouse horticulture Agronomie 21 332 339 Elmer, W.H. 2008 Preventing the