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Nikolaos Ntoulas, Panayiotis A. Nektarios and Efthimia Nydrioti

) to remove any unwanted image portion. Green Turf Cover percentage was determined using digital image analysis SigmaScan Pro Version 5.0 software (SigmaScan Pro; Systat Software Inc., Chicago, IL) ( Bousselot et al., 2010 ; Karcher and Richardson

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Filippo Rimi, Stefano Macolino and Bernd Leinauer

In transitional environments, turf managers and sod producers of warm-season grasses face the issue of winter annual weeds that can dominate dormant turf stands through the winter until late spring. The use of glyphosate to control weeds in dormant bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) has been well documented, but information is lacking about its effect on spring green-up of other warm-season grasses. A field study was conducted on two commercial sod farms in northern Italy (Expt. 1) to evaluate the effects of glyphosate applied on two different winter dates on weed control and spring green-up of ‘Zeon’ manilagrass (Zoysia matrella). A second study was carried out at the experimental agricultural farm of Padova University (Expt. 2) to assess the effects of a winter application of glyphosate on weed control and spring green-up of ‘Yukon’ bermudagrass and ‘Companion’ zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica). Each experiment was conducted from Jan. to June 2011, and glyphosate was applied at 1.1 kg·ha−1 on 8 and 21 Feb. in Expt. 1 and on 8 Feb. in Expt. 2. Spring recovery was evaluated by periodical visual ratings of green turf cover and by collecting normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVIs). Weed injury was visually evaluated on all plots 7 weeks after the 8 Feb. glyphosate application. The visual ratings of green cover were strongly and positively correlated with NDVI measurements. Glyphosate applied in February as a single treatment effectively controlled winter weeds in ‘Zeon’ manilagrass (Expt. 1) and ‘Yukon’ bermudagrass (Expt. 2) without negatively affecting spring green-up. In contrast, spring green-up of ‘Companion’ zoysiagrass (Expt. 2) was delayed by the application of glyphosate.

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were inversely correlated to wear tolerance. Percent green turf cover was directly, or positively correlated with wear tolerance. Measurement Scale for Children's Gardening Efficacy Garden programs may be an effective setting to promote nutritious diet

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Kevin M. Miele, Jason J. Henderson and John C. Inguagiato

. Glyphosate applied 7 and 5 DBC had less green cover 1 DAC, compared with applications made 1 or 0 DBC, during both years. Applications 3 DBC, provided a comparable reduction in green turf cover as treatments 7 and 5 DBC in 2015, although was intermediate

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Antonio Pompeiano, Nicola Grossi and Marco Volterrani

percent green turf cover for each plot. Pictures were analyzed individually by SigmaScan Pro (version 5.0; Systat Software, San Jose, CA). To selectively identify zoysiagrass green leaves, a hue range from 45 to 100 and a saturation range from 0 to 100

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James D. McCurdy, J. Scott McElroy and Elizabeth A. Guertal

predictability and its timing with the onset of bermudagrass dormancy. Furthermore, existing turfgrass cover may be an important consideration when seeding white clover, because green turf cover may buffer surface temperatures as well as affect soil drying and