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Umit Serdar, Bulent Kose, and Fatma Yilmaz

We studied the anatomical structure of graft unions in European chestnut using several grafting methods. The work was done in the greenhouse during 2003–04. The grafting methods epicotyl, hypocotyl, and inverted radicle were used. The grafts were made with scions of clone SA 5-1 on clone SE 21-9 rootstock. The samples for examination were taken from the graft unions 2, 6, and 12 months after grafting, and fixed in a formalin–acetic acid–alcohol solution. The observation of the anatomical structure of the graft union area revealed that new cambium, xylem, and phloem tissues were formed in the samples two months after grafting. Further, it could be also observed that 6 months were necessary for continuous cambial connection.

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Tian Gong, Xin Zhao, Ashwin Sharma, Jeffrey K. Brecht, and James Colee

importance of humidity level during the graft healing period on the survival and quality of grafted seedlings. According to Oda (2007) , even a momentary drying of the cut surface can be lethal. Wei et al. (2018) tested three relative humidity (RH

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Wenjing Guan and Xin Zhao

the graft healing process is the method currently used by some mechanical grafting operations ( Memmott, 2010 ). As both graft healing and root growth are energy-requiring processes, excising the roots could allow energy reserved in the rootstock

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A. Talaie and A. Javanshah

Methods to shorten the required fruiting period for pistachio may reduce production costs. Therefore, grafting is recommended. We examined three grafting methods: fabble, cleft, and side. Fabble grafts had 66% success and therefore a higher efficiency than the other two types of grafts examined. BA or ascorbic acid did not have a considerable positive effect on graft healing and there may have been some negative effects. The results of microscopic dissection show that healing between rootstock and scion, i.e., formation of callus, xylem, and phloem tissues in the epicotyl stage, are similar and the plants propagated by epicotyl grafts enjoy maturity signs from ontogeny points of view in two growing seasons.

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water source, sprinkler type, and initiation temperature at several bud stages. Optimizing Small-scale Graft Healing Chambers Many growers use simple graft healing chambers in their greenhouses, where it can be difficult to control light and relative

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Kristine M. Lang, Ajay Nair, and Alexander G. Litvin

-scale healing chambers with a target rate of 100% RH that resulted in an actual average RH ranging from 96% to 98% and the highest plant survival rate. Light levels within the healing chamber have an important role in the graft healing process ( Buajaila et al

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Shawna L. Daley, Jeffrey Adelberg, and Richard L. Hassell

., 2008 )] that can prevent successful graft healing or infect successfully grafted transplants. Decreasing the tray cell size and preventing the spread of disease via the rootstock cotyledon is an important objective in improving the efficiency of grafted

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Fairuz A. Buajaila, Pinki Devi, and Carol A. Miles

crop were immediately placed into one of the six healing chamber treatments for the 8-d healing period. Graft healing . Healing followed the protocol developed for this region ( Johnson et al., 2016 ), and is summarized here. The day when grafting

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Xin Zhao, Qianru Liu, M. Tatiana Sanchez, and Nicholas S. Dufault

chamber constructed on a bench in the greenhouse. Graft healing followed the procedure of Liu et al. (2017) . For the 2016 greenhouse inoculation experiment, ‘Melody’ scions were seeded on 11 Apr., and ‘Super Shintosa’, ‘Marvel’, and ‘Root Power

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Wenjing Guan, Dean Haseman, and Dennis Nowaskie

reduced during the graft healing period, which lasted about 7 d. Nongrafted cucumbers were exposed to similar environmental conditions as the grafted plants. Above 90% survival rates were achieved in all four seasons, regardless of the rootstocks. Grafted