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Amy L. McFarland, Benjamin J. Glover, Tina M. Waliczek, and Jayne M. Zajicek

effective method of teaching science as evidenced by student scores on the Stanford standardized science test and science grades of fourth-grade students in the HISD. Materials and methods Sample. The sample population used for this study was drawn from

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Julie Guckenberger Price, Amy N. Wright, Robert S. Boyd, and Kenneth M. Tilt

transplanting of the woody shrubs that constitute the backbone of many landscapes is also imperative. Studies on planting above-grade have proven it to be a successful technique, both with trees ( Arnold et al., 2005 ) and woody shrubs ( Wright et al., 2007

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Clinton C. Shock, Erik B.G. Feibert, Alicia Riveira, and Lamont D. Saunders

-split plots were topped by hand and bagged on 21 Sept. 2011 and on 24 Sept. 2012. Onions were graded in early October each year. During grading, all bulbs from each split-split plot were counted. After counting, the bulbs were separated according to quality

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P.E. Danforth, T.M. Waliczek, S.M. Macey, and J.M. Zajicek

wildlife habitat and conservation ( National Wildlife Federation, 2001 ). The purpose of the current study was to determine if the SYHP had an effect on the standardized test scores of a sampling of fourth grade students from Houston, Texas. Materials and

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Kathleen B. Evensen, Joseph M. Russo, and Harriet Braun

Grading criteria are proposed for judging potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) for chip quality and yield. The criteria were derived from a decision-making scheme developed from expert opinions, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture grades, and a statistical evaluation of stored potatoes. The criteria are presented as ranges of acceptable values for a limited set of variables found to be important for chip quality and yield. These variables include bruising, cracks, cuts, fusarium dry rot, lesions, and scab. The proposed criteria, besides being a practical decision-making tool for processors, could serve as a knowledge base for potato expert systems and the development of mechanized sorting equipment.

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Coleman L. Etheredge and Tina M. Waliczek

entitled, “Organic Farming and Gardening,” few significant differences were found when comparing final grades and students’ overall satisfaction ( Sciarappa et al., 2016 ). Additional studies found students participating in either a face-to-face or a hybrid

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E.W. Bush, A.W. Fennel, W.A. Young, and T.J. Raiford

To promote both learning and horticulture, a 5 year pilot program was implemented with a collaborative effort between the Louisiana State University Horticulture Department and the University Laboratory School. The objective of this program was to develop a hands-on approach to learning which fostered self-discovery and a positive perception of horticulture. First graders were able to experiment in both the greenhouse and in the field with instruction in the classroom. Among the many concepts that the children were Introduced to, they benefitted most from being able to participate and observe the process from seeding to harvesting enabling them to work with the different types of seeds, media, and fertilizers. In the classroom, horticulture was Integrated in every subject of the first grade class. For example, the students learned math by measuring and counting the produce then making charts to report their findings. The result of the program was that the children did in fact obtain a positive perspective of horticulture while developing an awareness of the process of growth and development of horticultural crops. The first grade class received a national award for donating their produce to the local food bank in Baton Rouge.

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Kathleen C. Ruppert and Gregory L. Davis

In his State of the Union Address (1990), President Bush proposed planting a billion trees annually for the next 10 years. Organizations such as Global ReLeaf are planning to plant 400 to 600 million trees by the year 2000. A review of science education periodicals and general information available on tree planting and care reveal little directed to children. Science education tends to focus on the nature, not the handling of trees, and where planting ideas are suggested, they tend to be about growing trees from seed. To determine the level of landscape tree care knowledge of 4th–6th graders, a questionnaire addressing how trees grow, site and tree selection, proper planting, and other areas was administered by 4-H agents and Univ. of Florida students throughout the state during five camps, involving 211 children during the summer of 1995. The questionnaire was revised with additional topics such as irrigation and mulching added and administered during three 4-H camps involving 77 4th–6th graders. Answers to these questionnaires were used to develop materials targeted for this age group and their teachers.

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Charles F. Mancino, Dianne Petrunak, and Douglas Wilkinson

The loss of fertilizer granules collected in turf clippings during routine putting green mowing has not been determined. The objective of this study was to quantify the amounts of greens-grade granular potassium (K) and nitrogen (N) fertilizers collected during the routine mowing of a `Pennlinks' creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) putting green. In the first study, five K-containing granular fertilizers were applied at K rates of 2.43 and 4.86 g·m-2. A second study was also performed with six granular Ncontaining fertilizers and one liquid N fertilizer applied at an N rate of 4.86 g·m-2. Both studies were performed twice. Irrigation (6.4 mm) was applied immediately after each fertilizer application and again on the following day. These two irrigations, plus additional irrigation and rain, resulted in each study receiving about 2.54 cm of water over each nineday study period. Mowing and clipping collection using a walk-behind greens mower set to cut at 3.96 mm began two days after treatment (2 DAT) and continued until 9 DAT. The clippings were oven-dried and separated from the fertilizer using a small pneumatic seed cleaner. Collected fertilizer was weighed and expressed as a percentage of the fertilizer applied. Liquid N fertilizer loss was estimated to be the difference between clipping N content of treated plots and untreated controls. Total K fertilizer loss was: UHS Signature 15-0-30 (15.3% to 22.9%) > Lebanon Isotek 11-3-22 (8.7% to 10.7%) > Scott's Contec 13-2-26 (4.9% to 7.4%) > Lesco Matrix 12-0-22 (0.1% to 0.4%) = Lesco Matrix 5-0-28 (0.1% to 0.5%). Signature was the only fertilizer significantly affected by rate and a greater percentage of loss occurred at the lower K application rate. Most loss occurred during the first and second mowing events with small amounts of fertilizer found in clippings from later mowings. The two Lesco materials were not found in clippings after the first mowing. Nitrogen fertilizer granule loss was also greatest with the first and second mowings. Total percentage of losses were IBDU 31-0-0 (75.4%) > Polyon 41-0-0 (70.8%)> Milorganite 6-2-0 (55.7%) > Nutralene 40-0-0 (47.0%) > UHS Signature (19.3%) > Isotek 11-3-22 (9.5%) > N-Sure Pro 30-0-0 (1.9%). In both studies, fertilizer loss appeared to be most related to water-solubility of the fertilizer, but size and density might also be factors.

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Curt R. Rom*

In a required introductory horticulture course during a 5-year period, students received early progress grades 1/3rd of the way through the course reflecting 20% of the possible points to be awarded in the class. It was thought that student knowledge of their grade performance may result in changes in behavior and class performance. The early progress and final grades both had a bell-shaped distribution with 45% and 48% of students receiving grades better than “C” for early progress and final grades, respectively. There was a significant although low correlation between early progress grades and final grades for the course (r 2 = 0.58). About 50% of the students received a final grade equal to the early progress grades, and 27% received grades higher than the early progress grades. The greatest change in performance were students who received a “D” early progress grade; 60% of those students improved their final grade. Nearly 25% of the students received final grades lower than the early progress grades. Of students receiving failing early progress grades (12%), nearly 60% withdrew from the course and only 10% received passing final grades.