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Eric Watkins, Andrew B. Hollman, and Brian P. Horgan

, kentucky bluegrass, and perennial ryegrass typically require significant amounts of nitrogen fertilization, irrigation, and pesticides ( Beard, 2002 ). Researchers have investigated several options for reducing inputs on golf course fairways such as

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Dale A. Devitt, Lena Wright, Daniel C. Bowman, Robert L. Morris, and Michelle Lockett

with appropriate drainage fluxes. Although NO 3 -N concentrations were often high under the golf course fairways in this study, LF estimated at the monitoring sites was relatively low (0.05 to 0.17) with an inverse relationship between yearly average NO

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Zachary J. Reicher and Glenn A. Hardebeck

Converting cool-season golf course fairways to creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) is desirable because it affords excellent playability, enhanced recuperative potential, and enhanced disease tolerance compared to annual bluegrass (Poa annua sp. Timm.) or perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), which are common species in fairways. However, converting current golf course fairways to creeping bentgrass with nonselective herbicides is problematic because it disrupts play and decreases revenue, as fairways must be closed for an extended period of time. The objective of our study was to quantify the effect of trinexapac-ethyl (TE), overseeding date, and overseeding rate on the success on the gradual conversion of cool-season fairways to creeping bentgrass over 3 years. `Penneagle' creeping bentgrass was overseeded at 0, 49, or 98 kg·ha-1 in fall, spring, or fall+spring after aerification, and application of TE at 0.0, 0.2, or 0.4 kg·ha-1. Gradual conversion to creeping bentgrass was effective, on perennial ryegrass fairways, with up to 36% cover of creeping bentgrass after 3 years of overseeding. However, only a maximum of 3% creeping bentgrass cover was obtained after the third year of overseeding into primarily annual bluegrass fairways. Fall overseeding with bentgrass at 49 or 98 kg·ha-1 was equally effective and additional spring overseeding did not improve establishment. Applications of TE prior to overseeding did not enhance the conversion. Chemical name used: 4-cyclopropyl-a-hydroxy-methylene-3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester (trinexapac-ethyl).

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Huisen Zhu and Deying Li

affordable on fairways even though the practices are shown to be beneficial ( Klingenberg et al., 2013 ). The objective of this study was to test if application of humus on golf course fairways by topdressing or spray can alleviate soil salinity problem and

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Aaron J. Patton, David W. Williams, and Zachary J. Reicher

Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) requires few inputs and provides high-quality turf in the transition zone, but is expensive to sprig or sod. Establishment by seed is less expensive than vegetative establishment, but little is known about renovation of existing turf to zoysiagrass using seed. Two experiments were performed to determine effects of herbicides and seeding rates on establishment of zoysiagrass in Indiana and Kentucky. In the first experiment, interseeding zoysiagrass into existing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) without the use of glyphosate before seeding resulted in 2% zoysiagrass coverage 120 days after seeding (DAS). In plots receiving glyphosate before seeding, zoysiagrass coverage reached 100% by 120 DAS. In the second experiment, MSMA + dithiopyr applied 14 days after emergence (DAE) or MSMA applied at 14+28+42 DAE provided the best control of annual grassy weeds and the greatest amount of zoysiagrass establishment. Applying MSMA + dithiopyr 14 DAE provided 7% less zoysiagrass coverage compared to MSMA applied 14 DAE at one of the four locations. Increasing the seeding rate from 49 kg·ha-1 to 98 kg·ha-1 provided 3% to 11% more zoysiagrass coverage by the end of the growing season at 3 of 4 locations. Successful zoysiagrass establishment in the transition zone is most dependent on adequate control of existing turf using glyphosate before seeding and applications of MSMA at 14+28+42 DAE, but establishment is only marginally dependent on seeding rates greater than 49 kg·ha-1. Chemical names used: N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate); monosodium methanearsenate (MSMA); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(triflurormethyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarbothioate (dithiopyr).

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Jack D. Fry and Raymond A. Cloyd

Zoysiagrass ( Zoysia spp.) is a warm-season turfgrass used in home lawns and golf course fairways within the transition zone of turfgrass adaptation and in the southern United States ( Fry and Huang, 2004 ). Cultivars of Z. matrella (L.) Merr

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Kevin M. Miele, Jason J. Henderson, and John C. Inguagiato

golf course fairway, on the same day are likely impractical. Therefore, turfgrass practitioners renovating existing creeping bentgrass fairways can cultivate 1 d after glyphosate application to eliminate the existing turf stand and minimize the interval

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Christopher P. Ryan, Peter H. Dernoeden, and Arvydas P. Grybauskas

golf course fairways in many regions of the United States. The disease appears on close-cut turf as spots usually 5.0 cm or less in diameter ( Monteith and Dahl, 1932 ). Individual leaves of infected creeping bentgrass plants shrivel, curl, and turn a

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Young-Ki Jo and David R. Smitely

Ataenius spretulus (Haldeman) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is the most common grub in golf course fairways in Michigan. Ataenius spretulus grubs are 3- to 10-fold more abundant in golf course fairways (mowed at a height of 1.5 cm) than in the roughs (mowed at a height of 5.0 cm or higher). Predation and infection by Paenibacillus sp. were previously reported to be greater in the rough, and may partially explain outbreaks of A. spretulus grubs in golf course fairways. In addition to natural enemies, cultural practices of irrigation and mowing could also be important factors, especially if A. spretulus prefers to oviposit in the fairway over the rough. In this paper we examine the impact of soil moisture and mowing height on oviposition and habitat selection. In a greenhouse experiment where A. spretulus adults were given a choice of turf maintained at fairway or rough height, no ovipositional preference for one or the other was observed. In three different growth chamber experiments where adults were allowed to choose among fairway or rough turf plugs held in soil at different moisture levels, adults preferred turf plugs in soil at a volumetric moisture content of 13% to 26% over turf plugs in soil at 8% to 9% moisture for their habitat selection. We conclude from these greenhouse and growth chamber experiments that A. spretulus adults do not choose turf habitat based on mowing height, but may be influenced by soil moisture levels.

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Alex J. Lindsey, Joseph DeFrank, and Zhiqiang Cheng

The use of nonpotable water for irrigation on various sport venues has led to an increased use of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) turf in Hawaii. An ongoing challenge many seashore paspalum turf managers struggle with is bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) infestations. Herbicide efficacy studies were conducted at the Hoakalei Country Club [‘SeaDwarf’ seashore paspalum (fairway cut)] and the Magoon Research Station [‘SeaStar’ seashore paspalum (grown in container)] on the island of Oahu in Hawaii. Spray applications of the herbicides mesotrione, topramezone, metribuzin, and ethofumesate were evaluated alone and in tank mixtures for bermudagrass suppression and seashore paspalum injury. At the Hoakalei Country Club, maximum bermudagrass injury with minimal seashore paspalum discoloration was obtained with tank mixes of mesotrione (0.06 lb/acre) + metribuzin (0.19 lb/acre) + ethofumesate (1.00 lb/acre) and topramezone (0.02 lb/acre) + metribuzin (0.19 lb/acre) + ethofumesate (1.00 lb/acre). Unacceptable seashore paspalum turf injury was obtained in all treatments that did not include metribuzin. At the Magoon Research Station, maximum selective bermudagrass suppression was achieved with tank mixes of topramezone (0.01 lb/acre) + ethofumesate (1.00 lb/acre) and topramezone (0.01 lb/acre) + metribuzin (0.09 lb/acre) + ethofumesate (1.00 lb/acre). The addition of metribuzin and/or ethofumesate to the tank mix safened (reduced turf discoloration) seashore paspalum to topramezone or mesotrione foliar bleaching. Tank mixes of mesotrione, topramezone, metribuzin, and ethofumesate have the potential for bermudagrass suppression and control of other grassy weeds in seashore paspalum turf.