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G.W. Stutte and J. Gage

California, Davis, for the gift of 3 H-(3,4) gibberellin A 1 . The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked advertisement solely to indicate this

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Claudinei Andreoli and Anwar A. Khan

Products Corp., Denver, for MicroCel E; Imperial Chemical Industries for gibberellin (GA 4+7 ); and the Known-You Seed Co., Kaohsiung, Taiwan, for papaya seeds. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under

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Nobutaka Shiraiwa, Kaori Kikuchi, Ichiro Honda, Masayoshi Shigyo, Hiroko Yamazaki, Daisuke Tanaka, Kenji Tanabe, and Akihiro Itai

temperature and photoperiod during vernalization on flower initiation and revealed that a long-day photoperiod promoted flower development and elongation of the flower stalk after flower initiation. Gibberellins are known to play important roles in a number of

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T.A. Cerny-Koenig, J.E. Faust, and N.C. Rajapakse

helping with the data analysis and Sonja Maki for her valuable suggestions and comments. We are grateful to W. Rademacher and BASF for supplying the ring D-modified gibberellins and prohexadione-Ca and to Richard Pharis for providing the GA 4 .

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Denise V. Duclos and Thomas Björkman

network of five flowering pathways that involve response to daylength, vernalization, carbohydrates, gibberellins, and an age-related autonomous pathway. However, the five pathways ultimately converge on the floral integrator genes leafy ( LFY

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Bing Wang and Alan R. Langille

gibberellin levels in potato plants ( Okazawa, 1959 , 1960 ). Conversely, Gregory (1956) also noted that short days and low night temperatures (“inducing conditions”) promote tuberization, and Dostal (1945) and Madec (1963) provided evidence for a

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Suxiao Hao, Yanfen Lu, Jing Liu, Yufen Bu, Qi Chen, Nan Ma, Zhiqin Zhou, and Yuncong Yao

Gibberellins (GAs) are increasingly proving to be a crucial regulator of plant growth and a controlling factor of plant architecture. They regulate various physiological and biochemical processes of plant growth and development, promote germination

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Ben van Hooijdonk, David Woolley, Ian Warrington, and Stuart Tustin

are also reported to limit scion vigor by increasing the proportion of annual shoots that end extension growth early during the growing season ( Robitaille and Carlson, 1976 ; van Hooijdonk et al., 2010 ). Unlike cytokinins, gibberellin(s) applied to

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Xiaohua Yang, Susan K. Brown, and Peter J. Davies

vivo is still lacking. Table 1. Gibberellins (GAs) previously identified in apple. Genes regulating key steps in GA synthesis have also been investigated in apple and are shown to be tissue-specific. In ‘Fuji’ apple, MdGA20ox1 [GA-20oxidase (catalyzes

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Alexander G. Litvin, Marc W. van Iersel, and Anish Malladi

growth and development and their responses to environmental stress are mediated by various phytohormones. Gibberellins (GAs) are particularly important for the control of stem elongation through their effects on cell expansion and division ( Achard et al