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Alexander D. Pavlista, Gary Hergert, Dipak K. Santra and James A. Schild

suppression by Kelley Bean Co. using standard commercial practices. Chemical preparation and applications. Gibberellic acid was applied as Release LC (Valent BioSciences, Long Grove, IL), a 4% (wt/wt) GA 3 formulation (1 g/fl oz GA 3 ). Release LC was diluted

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Zhengke Zhang, Runshan Fu, Donald J. Huber, Jingping Rao, Xiaoxiao Chang, Meijiao Hu, Yu Zhang and Nina Jiang

cloning for a full-length expansin gene ( CDK-Exp3 ) at the onset of ripening as well as to investigate the hypothesis that the expansin gene might be involved in persimmon fruit softening by interference of gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) on ripening. Materials

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Richard N. Arteca, Carl D. Schlagnhaufer and Jeannette M. Arteca

Four concentrations of GA, (0.05, 0.5, 5.0, or 50 mg·liter–1) were applied to the root systems of seven hydroponically grown geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum cv. Empress Irene, Glacier Crimson, Sincerity, Pink Fiat, Sybil Holmes, and Mrs. Parker and P. × domesticum cv. Lavender Grand Slam) cultivars. The relative growth rate of all cultivars tested increased with GA3 treatments. In conjunction with the increase in growth rate, each of the cultivars showed a reduction in the root: shoot ratio and chlorophyll content per unit leaf area with no change in the percent moisture. These Pelargonium cultivars are genetically diverse, showing that GA3 can stimulate growth over a wide range of cultivars. Chemical name used: gibberellic acid (GA3).

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Alexander D. Pavlista, Dipak K. Santra, James A. Schild and Gary W. Hergert

promote stem growth was known since the 1930s when a rice disease was identified to be the result of a pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi ( Takahashi et al., 1991 ). Since then, there have been more than 130 gibberellins identified. Gibberellic acid

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Torrance R. Schmidt, Don C. Elfving, James R. McFerson and Matthew D. Whiting

various gibberellic acid (GA) isomers on flowering in apple in the season after application ( Bertelsen and Tustin, 2002 ; Marino and Greene, 1981 ; McArtney, 1994 ; Meador and Taylor, 1987 ; Tromp, 1982 ). However, little has been reported on the

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Lívia Lopes Coelho, Amalia Fkiara, Kathryn Kuligowska Mackenzie, Renate Müller and Henrik Lütken

flowering with gibberellic acid in intact plants and cultured phylloclades of ‘Crimson Giant’ Easter cactus J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 119 36 42 Bratzel, F. Turck, F. 2015 Molecular memories in the regulation of seasonal flowering: From competence to cessation

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Elina Coneva and John A. Cline

Adjusting the crop load of peaches [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] by hand thinning is currently required to ensure marketable size of most cultivars grown in Ontario. A novel approach to adjust cropping by inhibiting flowering using gibberellic acid (GA3) was tested in an orchard experiment in which GA3 was applied at 7, 10, and 13 weeks after full bloom to mature `Redhaven' peach trees. Late GA3 treatments increased soluble solids concentration (SSC) in the season of application. A significant interaction between GA3 rate and time of application was observed on increased fruit firmness in the current season. Increasing rates of GA3 decreased flowering the following season in a quadratic fashion, resulting in a 41% to 90% diminished requirement for hand thinning. This translated into lower crop loads and yields for GA3-treated trees at harvest compared with untreated control trees. However, GA3-treated trees had larger mean fruit size and improved fruit size distribution the year after GA3 application. Advanced fruit ripening was also evident by increased fruit SSC and decreased fruit firmness, likely an indirect effect of GA3 on crop load. GA3 application timing significantly increased overall tree growth measured by the changes in trunk cross-sectional area.

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Joyce G. Latimer

Abbreviations: ABA, abscisic acid; DAS, days after sowing; GA, gibberellic acid; PGR, plant growth regulator. 1 Assistant Professor. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations

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Ben A. Bergmann, John M. Dole and Ingram McCall

flower-initiation procedures. Growers may be able to alleviate some of these issues by applying gibberellic acid to their crops. Gibberellic acid can be used to break dormancy, promote stem elongation, and replace photoperiodic requirements ( Kende and

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Frederick S. Davies and Glenn Zalman

Gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) has been applied to citrus fruit since the 1950s to delay peel senescence and prolong on-tree storage ( Coggins, 1981 ; Davies, 1986 ; El-Otmani et al., 2000 ). Application of GA 3 does not typically affect internal