Caladium hortulanum Birdsey cv. Candidum seed failed to germinate without light; maximum germination required daily, incandescent light of ≤4 hours. Lengthening daily lighting periods progressively reduced the days to 50% relative germination (T50) from 20 to 8, and days between 10% and 90% relative germination (T90 – T10) from 16 to 5. T50 and T90 – T10 were shortest (≈ 8 days) at 25 and 30C, while total or absolute germination percentage (G) was highest at ≈ 90%. G was 94% for seeds harvested immediately, but 75% or 38% for seeds that remained in fruits for 3 or 12 weeks after fruit abscission from the spadix. Total absolute germination was reduced from 95% to 87% when seed moisture contents declined to <14%. Seed storage for 7 days at from 10 to – 80 C-caused no reduction in G. Seeds were stored 6 months at 15C and 22%, 33%, or 52% RH without change in G, but storage at 5 or 25C and 11%, 75%, or 95% RH significantly reduced germination.
William J. Carpenter
Susumu Maekawa and William J. Carpenter
The germination of verbena (Verbena × hybrids) seed was found to be sensitive to high substrate moisture content. Cultivars varied in sensitivity to excessive substrate moisture content, with `Romance Scarlet' having higher total germination (G) in the presence of free water than `Showtime Blaze' or seedling `Red A'. Hilum cavity measurements of dry seeds showed larger hilum apertures with reduced depths for seeds of `Romance Scarlet' than for the others. Seed imbibition resulted in a rapid and extensive thickening of the hilum wall. The extent of hilum aperture closure varied among cultivars and the quantity of water present. Free water reduced hilum apertures 45% for `Romance Scarlet', 60% for `Showtime Blaze', and 86% for `Red A'. Seeds of `Romance Scarlet' and `Showtime Blaze' failed to germinate with lanolin covering the hilum, while seeds coated with lanolin, except for the hilum, had 67% to 78% G of nontreated seeds. This difference indicates that essential oxygen for the embryo was obtained through the hilum and micropyle of the seeds. Total germination varied with substrate moisture content, with seeds placed horizontally on 2%, 1%, or 0.5% agar having 80%, 75%, and 65% germination, respectively, for `Romance Scarlet' and 59%, 41%, and “24%, respectively, for `Showtime Blaze'.
Benjamin Pease, Grant L. Thompson, and Adam W. Thoms
(5–10 d) to allow for reduction of soil solution EC before turfgrass seed germination. Recommendations of compost use in turfgrass situations are based on volumetric parameters. Linde and Hepner (2005 ) found that incorporating biosolid compost in