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Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Lucas Allan Almeida Oliveira, Paulo Teodoro, and Rafael Montanari

precision agriculture in Brazil, the geostatistical study of crop production components related to crop yield has intensified ( Oliveira et al., 2018 ). Ferraz et al. (2012) defined precision agriculture as a set of techniques and technologies capable of

Open access

Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Mario Puiatti, Paulo Teodoro, and Rafael Montanari

The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the spatial variability of plant production components and the use of an irrigation and fertirrigation management system with controlled deficit affect the yield and incidence of garlic lateral shoot growing (LSG). An analysis of these data through statistical and geostatistical techniques made it possible to verify that the increase in yield is directly related to the height and diameter of the bulb and that the lateral shoot growing is directly related to the increase in yield. Lower water depths and lower nitrogen doses applied during clove differentiation imply a lower incidence of LSG, whereas increased irrigation and fertigation with nitrogen results in lower bulb volumes.

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E.A. Guertal and C.B. Elkins

Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured at two times of day (8:00 am and noon Central Standard Time) in a 915 × 915-cm area of a 1006 × 915-cm gable roof greenhouse. PAR measurements were taken across a grid at 40-cm intervals, a total of 529 data points. Spatial variation of PAR in the greenhouse was evaluated through contour plots and the geostatistical technique of semivariogram construction. Semivariograms provide a visual guide to the degree of spatial correlation of a variable, allowing a quantification of the distance at which variables cease to be spatially correlated (the range) Measured PAR contained distinct zones of lowered values, a function of overhead greenhouse structures, wall-hung electrical boxes, and tall plants in adjacent greenhouses. Although the amount of PAR changed over time, zones of high and low PAR remained relatively constant, except at the sides of the greenhouse. Constructed semivariograms revealed that PAR contained strong spatial correlation (up to a 350-cm separation) as measured in the north-south direction, moving parallel to greenhouse bench placement. When PAR measurements perpendicular to benches (east-west) were used in directional semivariograms PAR was found to be completely random, plotting as a horizontal line called a nugget effect. Thus, plants placed perpendicular to the greenhouse benches (east-west) would not be affected by the spatial correlation of PAR.

Open access

Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Domingos Sarvio Magalhães Valente, Isabela da Silva Ribeiro, and Paulo Eduardo Teodoro

relationship between observations with spatial proximity, considering that spatially close observations have similar values. Global spatial autocorrelation indicators (Moran I and II) provide measurements for the set of all points of the geostatistical grid

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Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Domingos Sarvio Magalhães Valente, Isabela da Silva Ribeiro, and Paulo Eduardo Teodoro

.40-m layer was observed, where the maximum values of soil compaction were found. The geostatistical analysis ( Supplemental Table 2 ) showed that there was spatial dependence for the simple semivariograms of the attributes RP2, RP4, and SVM that

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N.S. Lang, L. Mills, R.L. Wample, J. Silbernagel, E.M. Perry, and R. Smithyman

Research suggests that blackleaf (a leaf disorder in grape, Vitis labrusca L.) is induced by high levels of ultra violet (UV) radiation and overall light intensity, resulting in color changes (purple-brown-black) for sun-exposed leaves of the outer canopy, and a corresponding >50% reduction in photosynthesis. Metabolic indicators (photosynthesis and leaf water potential), percent blackleaf expression, and full spectrum leaf reflectance were mapped within vineyards using global positioning system (GPS) and digital remotely-sensed images. Each image and data record was stored as an attribute associated with a specific vine location within a geographical information system (GIS). Spatial maps were created from the GIS coverages to graphically present the progression of blackleaf across vineyards throughout the season. Analysis included summary statistics such as minimum, maximum, and variation of green reflectance, within a vineyard by image capture date. Additionally, geostatistics were used to model the degree of similarity between blackleaf values as a function of their spatial location. Remote-image analysis indicated a decrease in percent greenness of about 45% between July and August, which was related to a decrease in photosynthesis and an increase in blackleaf symptom expression within the canopy. Examination of full spectral leaf reflectance indicated differences at specific wavelengths for grape leaves exposed to UV or water-deficit stress. This work suggests that remote-image and leaf spectral reflectance analysis may be a strong tool for monitoring changes in metabolism associated with plant stress.

Free access

Hilary J. Sampson and S. A. Weinbaum

Extractable soil N may be leached below the plant rooting zone. and into the ground water. Orchards devoid of actively growing winter cover crops are subject to the greatest risk of NO3- leaching during tree dormancy in California. We examined the patterns of KCl extractable NH4+ and NO3-. and potentially mineralizable N (PMN) in the top 10 cm of soil across transects (60 samples, 150 m) in 3 almond orchard systems at 5 phenological stages in 1993. Extractable N was affected both spatially and temporally by management practices (e.g. herbicide or fertilizer application) and soil temperature. PMN did not exhibit local spatial patterns; geostatistical analysis revealed a trend across the transects indicating a larger scale of soil variation. possibly resulting from land leveling. The conventionally-managed orchard without a cover crop demonstrated higher levels of extractable NH4+ and NO3- in the top 10 cm in Feb. and Nov. 1993, compared with orchards managed with organic fertilizers and winter cover crops.

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J. Logan and M.A. Mueller

Tennessee is located in an area of diverse topography, ranging in elevation from <100 m to ≈2000 m, with numerous hills and valleys. The physiography makes it very difficult to spatially interpolate weather data related to vegetable production, such as spring and fall freeze dates and growing degree days (GDD). In addition, there is a poor distribution of cooperative weather stations, especially those with 30 years or more of data. There are climate maps available for Tennessee, but they are of such a general format as to be useless for operational applications. This project is designed to use a geographic information system (GIS) and geospatial techniques to spatially interpolate freeze (0 °C) dates and GDD for different base temperatures and make the data available as Internet-based maps. The goal is to develop reasonable climate values for vegetable growing areas <1000 m in elevation at a 100 square km resolution. The geostatistics that we are evaluating include Thiessen polygons, triangulated irregular network (TIN), inverse distance weighting (IDW), spline, kriging, and cokriging. Data from 140 locations in and around Tennessee are used in the analysis. Incomplete data from 100 other locations are used to validate the models. GDD, which have much less year-to-year variability than freeze dates, can be successfully interpolated using inverse distance weighting (IDW) or spline techniques. Even a simple method like Thiessen produces fairly accurate maps. Freeze dates, however, are better off analyzed on an annual basis because the patterns can vary significantly from year to year. The annual maps can then be superimposed to give a better estimate of average spring and fall freeze dates.

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N.S. Lang, R. Smithyman, L. Mills, R.L. Wample, J. Silbernagel, and E.M. Perry

Blackleaf (a.k.a. chocolate leaf) is of worldwide concern in Vitis due to its negative impact on fruit ripening, yield reduction and overall stress on grapevines. Research suggests blackleaf is induced by high levels of UV radiation and overall light intensity, which induce color changes (purple-brown-black) in exposed leaves, resulting in >50% reduction in photosynthesis. The ability to detect blackleaf symptoms before expression can provide insight into metabolic stresses and the possibility of the use and/or timing of management practices to reduce its impact. Remotely sensed imagery and spatial analysis may elucidate reflectance-related processes and symptoms not apparent to the un-aided eye. In this research we mapped canopy growth (leaves/shoot and shoots/vine), metabolic triggers (photosynthesis, leaf water potential, soil moisture), and percent blackleaf expression within vineyards using global positioning system (GPS), infrared gas analyzer, and digital remotely-sensed images. Each image and data record was stored as an attribute associated with specific vine location within a geographical information system (GIS). Spatial maps were created from the GIS coverages to graphically present the progression of blackleaf across vineyards throughout the season. Analysis included summary statistics such as minimum, maximum, and variation of green reflectance, within a vineyard by image capture date. Additionally, geostatistics were used to model the degree of similarity between blackleaf values as a function of their spatial location. Continuing research will be aimed at identifying spectral characteristics of early season stresses due to UV light, water stress, and reduced photosynthetic capacity. Spatial relationships between early season stress and later blackleaf expression will be assessed using joint spatial dependence measures. Overall, information obtained through digital image and spatial analysis will supplement site level information for growers.

Free access

James A. Taylor, John-Paul Praat, and A. Frank Bollen

Pringle, 1999 ) to provide some quantitative geostatistics. McBratney and Pringle (1999) have shown that average variograms provide several benefits. First, they provide a benchmark of the values for variogram parameters that are to be expected for a