/structural gene expression between Phalaenopsis amabilis (W) and Phalaenopsis schilleriana (R). DFR primers were designed based on the consensus sequences derived from Dfr genes of four orchid genera, Bromheadia ( Liew et al., 1998 ), Dendrobium
when A. Howard released the cultivar ‘Howard's Star’ in the late 1800s, which is in the genetic background of nearly every modern star cultivar. Anthocyanin biosynthetic gene expression within the white and colored tissues of the Star mutation has
severity is often cultivar dependent, with some cultivars being predisposed to specific physiological defects over the course of long-term storage ( Larrigaudière et al., 2016 ). Examining changes in gene expression during the postharvest period will 1
Genetic and environmental factors affect onion (Allium cepa L.) pungency but the molecular basis for this variation is not understood. To initiate molecular analysis of onion sulfur metabolism we isolated cDNAs from onion associated with sulfur assimilation and compared gene expression and sulfur metabolism of mild and pungent onion cultivars. We isolated cDNAs encoding homologues of 5'adenosine-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and serine acetyl transferase using a homology-based RT-PCR approach. Homologues of high-affinity sulfate transporters and sulfite reductase were isolated from an onion root differential cDNA library enriched for genes up-regulated by 48 hours sulfur deprivation. The influence of genotype and sulfur nutrition on root expression of selected genes was measured in an experiment in which a low pungency onion cultivar (`Houston Grano') and a high pungency cultivar (`Canterbury Longkeeper') were grown hydroponically in low (0.1 meq·L-1) or high (4.0 meq·L-1) sulfate medium and harvested before bulbing. `Canterbury Longkeeper' contained higher concentrations of (+)-S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide in leaf and root than `Houston Grano' but cultivars did not differ in leaf trans-(+)-S-(1-propenyl)-L-cysteine sulfoxide concentrations. `Houston Grano' accumulated significantly higher concentrations of total N, nitrate, and basic amino acids in leaves and roots, suggesting these cultivars differ markedly in maintenance of S/N homeostasis. Steady-state transcript levels of APS reductase and high-affinity sulfate transporter in roots were significantly higher (2- to 3-fold) at low sulfate. By contrast, steady state levels of ATP sulfurylase transcript were significantly higher at high sulfate levels and in `Canterbury Longkeeper'. We conclude that differences in regulation of the sulfur assimilation pathway may underlie genetic differences in pungency.
The objective of our research is to understand the genetic basis of embryogenesis. Somatic embryogenesis from carrot culture was chosen as the experimental system because of its simplicity and the ease with which it lends itself to obtaining a large number of embryos for genetic and biochemical experiments. Our general philosophy is to avoid media manipulation and to focus on gene expression during embryogenesis. One approach is to isolate genes preferentially expressed at specific stages of embryogenesis, and then to study the role of these genes in development.
WD40) form a complex that binds to structural gene promoters, thus modulating gene expression. The following description of this complex was complied from several sources ( Baudry et al., 2006 ; Hartmann et al., 2005 ; Hernandez et al., 2004
) ( Malamy et al., 1990 ), and exogenous SA application also induces SAR and PR gene expression ( Ward et al., 1991 ). Treatment of plants with functional analogs of SA, benzothiadiazole (BTH), also induces SAR ( Gorlach et al., 1996 ), as does treatment with
carotenoid accumulation and related gene expression in pummelo pulp. Light is one of the most crucial environmental factors in carotenoid accumulation in plant tissues ( Pizarro and Stange, 2009 ). Light has been shown to induce carotenoid accumulation and
control detected by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. From left to right: nontransgenic control (CK), transgenic lines T-HF1, T-HF4, and T-HF5. Effect of suppressing MdGA20-ox gene expression on GA contents. GA content in leaves of in vitro plants
Gene expression analysis is increasingly important to understand the molecular mechanisms of plant biological processes, such as growth and development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses ( Huang et al., 2010 ; Koo et al., 2010 ; Ren et al