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Rafel Socias i Company, Àngel Fernández i Martí, Ossama Kodad, and José M. Alonso

identification by molecular markers and gene sequencing as well as to the presence of modifier genes affecting the expression of self-compatibility in almond. Fruit Set The first studies of almond pollination were based on fruit set, concluding that the

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Donglin Zhang, Michael A. Dirr, and Robert A. Price

Cephalotaxus species are needle evergreens offering the aesthetic qualities of Taxus, yew, yet are heat- and drought-tolerant, sun- and shade-adaptable, and resist deer browsing. They are adaptable to nursery and garden cultivation in USDA hardiness zones (5)6–9. Unfortunately, the various species are frequently confused in the American nursery trade due to their extreme similarity in morphology. Recently, molecular data have been widely applied in the taxonomic studies, especially DNA sequencing. The chloroplast gene rbcL of Cephalotaxus has been sequenced for determining species relationships. The preliminary results show that C. oliveri Mast. has 10 base changes from C. drupacea Sieb. et Zucc., while only one base difference occurred between C. drupacea and C. harringtonia (Forbes) Koch. There are between one and 10 base substitutions among C. fortunei Hooker, C. koreana Nakai, and C. sinensis (Rehd. et Wils.) Li. Compared with other closely related conifers, Cephalotaxus has a substantial number of differences among species except between C. drupacea and C. harringtonia, which may not be distinct species. Detailed data relative to gene sequencing, growth morphology, and horticultural characteristics should lead to correct identification of species and great horticultural uses. Furthermore, the method of rbcL sequence can be applied to distinguish other morphologically homogeneous ornamental plants.

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Gregory E. Welbaum, Zhen-Xing Shen, Jonathan I. Watkinson, Chun-Li Wang, and Jerzy Nowak

Priming commercial growing media and soils with dilute sugar solutions was investigated as a means of stimulating beneficial microflora to improve transplant productivity. Muskmelon (Cucumis melo) seedlings were grown in soilless growing medium primed with equal volumes of 50 mm sucrose or trehalose. After priming, the time when 50% of plants showed wilting symptoms was delayed 45 hours and the mean time that seedling xylem tension reached –1.0 MPa was delayed 70 hours compared with watered controls. Sucrose or trehalose priming improved water retention in the presence and absence of plants grown in sphagnum-based medium after an incubation period of ≈24 h, but no improvement occurred when autoclaved medium or acid-washed sand were primed. Light micrographs of primed medium revealed positive staining of opaque material between organic-matter particles with alcian blue, a polysaccharide-specific stain. Sixteen bacterial colonies were cultured in liquid medium from leachate of positive-stained, primed, growing-medium samples and identified via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Identified colonies were Curtobacterium pussillum, Paenibacillus lautus, Brevundimonas, and 13 Bacillus spp., including well-characterized biofilm producers. Increased soil-moisture retention was the result of a complex, glucose-based, hydrophilic, polysaccharide polymer of bacterial origin that was produced in liquid culture from extracts of primed medium.

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Te-Ming Tseng, Swati Shrestha, James D. McCurdy, Erin Wilson, and Gourav Sharma

of 0.05 ( Seefeldt et al., 1995 ). The tolerance level of biotypes was compared using I 50 values ( Streibig, 1988 ). Target-site gene sequencing. Leaf tissue from five plants of each of the Reunion and susceptible biotypes was harvested at the two

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Yuee Tian, Zhiping Che, Di Sun, Jiaxuan He, Shengming Liu, and Xiaomin Lin

). Yang et al. (2017) confirmed that B. cinerea was the only pathogenic fungus causing tree peony gray mold in Luoyang through the identification of a large number of samples based on morphological characteristics and gene sequencing. It has been

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Lynn Maher and Irwin L. Goldman

environments ( Jackson et al., 2015 ). Developments in metagenomic sequencing tools such as 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) sequencing provide a powerful method to characterize these microbial communities. 16S rRNA gene sequencing has been used to characterize

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Nicolas C. Strange, John K. Moulton, Ernest C. Bernard, William E. Klingeman III, Blair J. Sampson, and Robert N. Trigiano

of McAlpine et al. (1981) was used for Diptera species. Following morphological identification, representatives of each putative morphospecies were selected for cox -1 gene sequencing. Several primers, in addition to the traditional barcoding

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Julia M. Harshman, Wayne M. Jurick II, Kim S. Lewers, Shiow Y. Wang, and Christopher S. Walsh

being immediately discarded that contained a single infected berry that might not reflect the true storability of the cultivar or selection. Identification of Botrytis cinerea using Koch’s postulates and gene sequencing. Botrytis cinerea was isolated

Open access

Rachel E. Rudolph, Lisa W. DeVetter, Inga A. Zasada, and Cedar Hesse

Center for Genome Research and Biocomputing (Corvallis, OR) for library generation and gene sequencing on an Illumina ® MiSeq sequencer. Statistical analyses. Analysis of treatment by sampling date interactions for soil chemistry and plant performance