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Peter M. Hanson, Jen-tzu Chen and George Kuo

High-temperature fruit set (heat tolerance) is a critical trait of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars targeted for lowland wet season production in the tropics and subtropics. Heat-tolerant Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC) tomato line CL5915-93D4-1-0-3 (CL5915) is a valuable source of heat-tolerance genes for tomato genetic improvement. The gene action of heat tolerance in CL5915 was determined by evaluating the F1, F2, BCP1, and BCP2 of a cross between CL5915 and heat-sensitive line UC204A for fruit set traits in two wet-season trials at AVRDC. Parent-offspring regression of F2-derived F3 (F2:3) family means on the F2 plants from CL5915 × UC204A was used to estimate the heritability of F2 single plant selection for heat tolerance. Mean percentage of fruit set and fruit number per cluster of the F1 and BCP1 exceeded midparent values and were not significantly different from those of CL5915, indicating complete dominance for heat tolerance. Generation means analyses indicated that a model including simple additive and dominance effects adequately explained the inheritance of mean fruit number per cluster both years. For mean percentage of fruit set, a model including simple additive-dominance effects produced an adequately fitting model in the 1996 season but the best-fitting model included an epistatic component in the 1997 season. Heritabilities estimated for fruit set traits in 1996 and 1997, respectively, were: 0.31 and 0.21 for percentage of fruit set; 0.28 and 0.14 for mean fruit number per cluster; and 0.53 and 0.15 for flower number per cluster. The low heritabilities for percentage of fruit set and mean fruit number per cluster under high temperatures imply that single plant selection in the F2 for heat tolerance from crosses involving CL5915 is not effective and that selection should be based on replicated family testing in the F3 and later generations.

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Fekadu Gurmu, Shimelis Hussein and Mark Laing

used to estimate the genetic variance components between crosses ( Griffing, 1956a ; Hayman, 1954 ; Jinks and Hayman, 1953 ; Kempthorne, 1956 , 1957 ), where the relative magnitude of GCA and SCA variances indicate the type of gene action and the

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Lijuan Wang, Nian-Oine Shi, Murray E. Duysen and Chiwon W. Lee

Cleistogamy in Salpiglossis sinuatu L. involves a sequence of events, including arrested corolla development, precocious pollen germination inside anther, pollen tube penetration of the pistil, and eventual self fertilization, that takes place. within a tightly closed flower bud. A single dominant gene (C) controls cleistogamy in this plant. During early blooming period, cleistogamous (CC, Cc) plants produce both chasmogamous (open) and cleistogamous (closed) flowers. Enzymes in various tissues of both cleistogamous and chasmogamous buds were detected by isozyme banding patterns in starch gel electrophoresis. The onset of cleistogamy may be signalled in the calyx and corolla tissues in the early stage of flower development. The levels of specific enzymes (PGM, PGI, G-6PD, PGD, MPI) involved in gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate shunt and glycolysis in both calyx and corolla tissues of the cleistogamous buds were greatly reduced. These enzymes were present in the pistil and anthers of cleistogamous buds and in all floral parts of the chasmogamous buds.

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J.A. Dick and V.I. Shattuck

Inheritance of resistance to blotchy ripening In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars intended for machine harvest was studied in two diallel crosses using the Hayman and Griffing analyses. Additive effects were most important as indicated by the high level of general combining ability compared with specific combining ability. Some hybrids performed better than the mid-parent mean; however, heterosis for resistance to blotch above the best inbred line was not evident. Epistasis occurred between recessive genes in two parents, resulting in reduced blotch. No significant interaction between the expression of blotch in diallel progeny and K availability was evident. Genotype-environment Interaction was significant, but relative variation in blotch between experiments only occurred in cultivars with an intermediate level of resistance.

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John R. Stommel and Robert J. Griesbach

Bosland, 2006 ). Surprisingly, these mutants afford little insight into the inheritance and gene action that influences leaf morphology of typical C. annuum breeding material such as that reported here. A number of these mutants, however, offer potential

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Robert M. Pyne, Adolfina R. Koroch, Christian A. Wyenandt and James E. Simon

supported by inheritance studies that measure disease response across multiple generations, environments, and years ( Holland et al., 2003 ). Such studies can be used to determine number of genes involved and elucidate gene action, which is essential to the

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Yayeh Zewdie, Paul W. Bosland and Robert Steiner

The inheritance of capsaicinoid content was studied in five Capsicum pubescens Ruiz & Pav. genotypes using diallel analysis. General combining ability and specific combining ability effects were significant for all capsaicinoids studied, indicating additive and nonadditive gene actions are present. The association of high capsaicinoid contents with high positive general combining ability of the parents also indicates the predominance of additive gene action in capsaicinoid inheritance. Because of the predominant additive gene effect, recurrent selection would be a good breeding method to increase capsaicinoid level in the population studied. Heterosis was observed in hybrids for some of the capsaicinoids, suggesting that F1 hybrids could also be used to increase capsaicinoid content.

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Cuauhtemoc Cervantes-Martinez, J. Steven Brown, Raymond J. Schnell, Wilbert Phillips-Mora, Jemmy F. Takrama and Juan C. Motamayor

Knowledge of genetic differences among commonly cultivated cacao clones, as well as the type of gene action involved for disease resistance, yield, quality, and horticultural traits, are essential for cacao breeders to select parental clones efficiently and effectively. This information is also critical for quantitative geneticists in designing and improving quantitative trait loci (QTL) localization strategies using breeding populations, whether they involve analysis of multiple populations crossed to one common parent or association genetic analysis. The objectives of this research were to 1) verify the genetic identity of parental cacao clones used to produce hybrids for field evaluation at the Centro Agrónomico Tropical de Investigación y Enzeñanza (CATIE), Turrialba, Costa Rica, using molecular marker analysis, and 2) estimate general and specific combining ability (GCA and SCA) of the parental clones for resistance to frosty pod (Moniliophthora roreri Cif. and Par.) and black pod [Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl.] diseases, total number of pods, vigor (as measured by trunk diameter), and measures of maturity (months to first flowering and pod production). Misidentification of cacao clones was found at three levels. Molecular marker analysis revealed that six parental clones differed in identity to supposedly identical accessions from other germplasm collections. Trees of the parental clone UF 273 consisted of two clearly different genotypes, resulting in two types of progeny, requiring separate designation for correct statistical analysis. Out-crossed progeny, presumably from foreign pollen, and selfed progeny were also found. Two of the traits measured, percent healthy pods and percent pods with frosty pod, showed predominantly additive gene action, while the traits total number of pods and trunk diameter, demonstrated regulation by both additive and nonadditive gene action. Number of months to first flowering and first fruit both showed evidence of predominant regulation by nonadditive gene effects. Crosses of two parental clones, UF 712 and UF 273 Type I, were identified as potential candidates for QTL analysis as breeding populations, given their favorable GCA estimates for frosty pod resistance and total pod production, respectively.

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Rajeev Arora, Lisa J. Rowland, Ganesh R. Panta, Chon-Chong Lim, Jeffrey S. Lehman and Nicholi Vorsa

Mode of inheritance of cold hardiness (CH) in woody perennials is not wellunderstood. This study was undertaken to determine the mode of inheritance and gene action of CH in blueberry (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus). Two testcross populations (segregating for CH) derived from interspecific hybrids of V. darrowi (drw) × V. caesariense (csr) were used. Plants were cold-acclimated by a 4-week exposure to 4°C. Bud CH (LT50) was defined as the temperature causing 50% injury (visual) when subjected to controlled freeze–thaw. Results show that the drw and csr parents had an LT50 of –13° and –20°C, respectively. The F1 population exhibited mean LT50 of –14.7°C. The csr and drw testcross populations had a mean LT50 of –18° (39 individuals) and –14°C (33 individuals), respectively. Individuals of each population were distributed between parental values with center of distribution skewed toward the testcross parent. Since individuals having LT50s as same as the recurrent parents were present in each population of only 33–39 plants, data suggest that CH is determined by relatively few genes. To determine gene action, the estimates for various genetic parameters (calculated from joint scaling test) were used in generation means analysis to test various models. Results indicate that CH in blueberry can be best explained by simple-additive dominance model, whereas models including epistatic components did not satisfactorily explain the data.