., 1992 ), and sunflowers ( Grassini et al., 2007 ), that leaf gas exchange is affected by the lack of oxygen in the rhizosphere. Depending on the growth stage at which soil waterlogging occurs, such reduction in CO 2 assimilation may reduce the number of
Vincent Pelletier, Steeve Pepin, Thomas Laurent, Jacques Gallichand, and Jean Caron
Thayne Montague, Roger Kjelgren, and Larry Rupp
Gas exchange and growth of transplanted and nontransplanted, field-grown Norway maple (Acer platanoides L. `Schwedleri') and littleleaf linden (Tilia cordata Mill. `Greenspire') trees were investigated in an arid climate. In the spring of 1995, three trees of each species were moved with a tree spade to a new location within a field nursery and three nontransplanted trees were selected as controls. Predawn leaf water potential, morning-to-evening stomatal conductance and leaf temperature, leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference, midday stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate, and growth data were collected over a 2-year period. After transplanting, weekly predawn leaf water potential indicated that transplanted trees were under greater water stress than were nontransplanted (control) trees. However, predawn leaf water potential of maple trees recovered to control levels 18 weeks after transplanting, while that of transplanted linden trees remained more negative than that of controls. In 1995, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rates were lower throughout the day for transplanted trees. In 1996, gas exchange rates of transplanted maple trees recovered to near control levels while rates for transplanted linden trees did not. Sensitivity of stomata to leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference varied with species and with transplant treatment. Each year transplanted trees of both species had less apical growth than did control trees. Although gas exchange and apical growth of transplanted trees was reduced following transplanting, recovery of gas exchange to control rates differed with species.
Jim Syvertsen, J. Lloyd, and G. D. Farquhar
57 ORAL SESSION 17 (Abstr. 116-123) Tree Fruit and Berries: Gas Exchange/Photosynthesis
Yahia Othman, Dawn VanLeeuwen, Richard Heerema, and Rolston St. Hilaire
intercellular CO 2 decrease slightly, and stomatal limitations to gas exchange dominate ( Cifre et al., 2005 ). At severe water deficits ( g S less than 0.05 mol·m −2 ·s −1 H 2 O), P n further decreases and c i increases indicating that non
Thayne Montague, Roger Kjelgren, and Larry Rupp
Research was conducted to investigate how energy balance of bark mulch and turf surfaces influence gas exchange and growth of recently transplanted trees. On several occasions over a 3-year period, stomatal conductance and leaf temperature were measured throughout the day on `Emerald Queen' Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) and `Greenspire' littleleaf linden (Tilia cordata Mill.) trees growing over each surface. Tree water loss was estimated using a general transport flux equation applied to the tree crown apportioned between sunlit and shade layers. Microclimate variables were measured over each surface with a permanent weather station. Tree growth data were collected at the end of each growing season. Soil heat flux data revealed that a greater portion of incoming radiation was prevented from entering the soil below mulch than below turf. Due to this insulating effect, and consequent lack of evaporative cooling, mulch surface temperature was greater, and emitted more longwave radiation, than turf. Leaves over mulch intercepted more longwave radiation, had greater leaf temperature, and greater leaf-to-air vapor pressure difference than leaves over turf. As a result, leaves over mulch had greater stomatal closure than leaves over turf. Estimated tree water loss varied between surface treatments and with climatic conditions. Trees over turf had greater shoot elongation and leaf area than trees over mulch. These data suggest that gas exchange and growth of recently transplanted trees in an arid climate may be reduced if planted over nonvegetative, urban surfaces.
Guiseppe Colla, Youssef Roupahel, Mariateresa Cardarelli, and Elvira Rea
A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine growth, yield, fruit quality, gas exchange and mineral composition of watermelon plants (Citrullus Lanatus L. `Tex'), either ungrafted or grafted onto two commercial rootstocks `Macis' [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] and `Ercole' (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) and cultured in NFT. Plants were supplied with a nutrient solution having an electrical conductivity (EC) of 2.0 or 5.2 dS·m–1. The saline nutrient solution had the same basic composition, plus an additional of 29 mm of NaCl. Increased salinity in the nutrient solution decreased total yield. The reduction in total yield in saline treatments compared to control was due to a reduction in the fruit mean mass and not to the number of fruit per plant. Total fruit yield was 81% higher in grafted than in ungrafted plants. The lowest marketable yield recorded on ungrafted plants was associated with a reduction in both fruit mean mass and the number of fruits per plant in comparison to grafted plants. Salinity improved fruit quality in all grafting combinations by increasing dry matter (DM), glucose, fructose, sucrose, and total soluble solid (TSS) content. Nutritional qualities of grafted watermelons such as fruit DM, glucose, fructose, sucrose, and TSS content were similar in comparison to those of ungrafted plant. In all grafting combinations, negative correlations were recorded between Na+ and Cl– in the leaf tissue and net assimilation of CO2 Grafting reduced concentrations of sodium, but not chloride, in leaves. However, the sensitivity to salinity was similar between grafted and ungrafted plants and the higher total yield from grafting plants was mainly due to grafting per se.
Amir M. González-Delgado, Manoj K. Shukla, and Brian Schutte
and yield of pecan. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of soil surface manipulation and indaziflam application on ET, gas exchange parameters of pecan trees, and phytotoxicity effects of indaziflam on pecan trees. Materials and
W.F. Whitehead and B.P. Singh
Conventional production of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) requires substantial investments, intensive management and high inputs of nitrogen. High N rates invariably leave residual soil NO3-N with the potential of polluting ground water and posing health hazard to humans and animals. The objective of this study was to examine the value of cover crops as a substitute to synthetic N fertilizer in growing of tomatoes. The experimental treatments consisted of control (no N fertilizer or cover crop), Abruzzi rye (Secale cereale L), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), or crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.) cover crop, and fertilization of N at 90 or 180 kg·ha-1. The treatments were replicated four times over 2 years in a randomized complete block experiment for growing `Mountain Pride' tomato on a Greenville fine sandy loam soil. The parameters used to evaluate the performance of tomato consisted of leaf area index (LAI), gas exchange (GE), above ground plant dry weight, number of fruits, dry weight of fruits, and marketable fruit yield. Tomato LAI was similar under legumes and N fertilizers. Hairy vetch and applied N at 90 kg·ha-1 influenced net photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration (E) the most in both years at all stages of growth. Highest number of tomatoes were produced in hairy vetch and applied N at 90 kg·ha-1 plots. There was no significant difference in the above ground plant dry weight, fruit yield and dry weight of fruits between legumes and N fertilizers. The results suggested that the legume cover crops compared favorably to N fertilizers in promoting tomato growth and development and may have potential of substituting N fertilizers in fresh-market tomato production.
Jean-Pierre Privé, Lindsay Russell, and Anita LeBlanc
“particle film” on the plant surface. Although designed not to interfere with leaf gas exchange, the findings to this end are mixed ( Glenn and Puterka, 2005 ). Differences in product application, climatic conditions, crop or cultivar, and physiological
Leonardo Lombardini, Astrid Volder, Monte L. Nesbitt, and Donita L. Cartmill
in the present study). It is not known what the physiological consequences of leafminer infestation on gas exchange are and whether pecan shows any compensatory response. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pecan blotch