Changes in the odor-active volatile compounds produced by `Gala' apples [Malus ×sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf. `Gala'] were measured after 4, 10, and 20 weeks storage at 1 °C in regular atmosphere (RA) or controlled atmosphere (CA), and 16 weeks in CA followed by 4 weeks in RA. Aroma was evaluated using the gas chromatography-olfactometry method Osme. Production of volatile esters decreased along with corresponding fruity aromas during CA storage. Hexyl acetate, butyl acetate, and 2-methylbutyl acetate were emitted in the largest amounts and perceived with the strongest intensities from RA-stored fruit. While hexyl acetate and butyl acetate concentrations and aroma intensities decreased during CA storage, 2-methylbutyl acetate remained at the RA concentration until apples had been stored 16 weeks in CA. Perception intensities of methylbutyrate esters with apple or berrylike odors decreased less than straight chain esters in CA-stored fruit. 4-Allylanisole, ß-damascenone, and 1-octen-3-ol, as well as an unknown compound with a watermelon descriptor, were perceived more in RA-stored fruit than in CA-stored apples. Factor analysis indicated the importance of these compounds in `Gala' apples stored 4 weeks in RA. Even though these compounds do not have an apple odor, they contribute to fresh `Gala' aroma.
Anne Plotto, Mina R. McDaniel, and James P. Mattheis
J. Song and R.M. Beaudry
Aroma analysis of horticultural produce is an emerging field in which both flavor producing and malodorous compounds are detected from within a complex sample matrix. Qualitative and quantitative information is desired to monitor produce ripeness and provide quality control over processed products such as juices, preserves and canned products. Conventional analysis methods such as purge and trap and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry provide much of this information but are laborious and time consuming. Faster techniques are required when large numbers of samples are being analyzed and when rapid feedback to the produce harvester is required. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has recently been shown to significantly reduce the sampling times required by more conventional methods. The use of fast gas chromatographic techniques along with the recently commercialized time-of-flight mass spectrometer has also significantly reduced the separation and analysis times. We have combined SPME with gas chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a rapid and quantitative tool for the analysis of flavor volatiles in apples and tomatoes. The sampling and analysis processes provide significant improvements to sample throughput, with analysis times taking only 2–6 minutes. The linear response of this system to butylacetate, ethyl-2-methylbutanoate and hexylacetate ranges from ppb to ppm levels, and the identification of unknown flavor compounds is possible even in the presence of other co-eluting compounds. The SPME technique is able to investigate volatiles changes in apple cuticle and tissues, which open the new possibility for flavor biochemistry research.
M.A. Sieberg, D.K. Stumpf, and D.T. Ray
Vernonia galamensis spp. galamensis is a short-season oilseed plant naturally producing an epoxy fatty acid, vernolic (cis-12, 13-epoxy-cis-9, 10-octadecenoic) acid. Trivernolin, a triglyceride with three vernolic acid moieties, is the highestquality oil produced by vernonia. Industrial interest in vernonia oil includes use for metal coating and as a non-volatile oil in paint. Seed lipase causes production of free fatty acids (FFA) from triglycerides (TG) in preand post-crushed seeds, thereby decreasing the quality of vernonia oil. Consequently, production of FFA can be used as a measure of lipase activity. Our research has developed a technique for detecting the production of FFA and the accompanying diand monoglycerides. We are able to quantify FFA in relation to total seed lipid. FFA were measured at time of crushing and at selected time intervals thereafter. This allowed us to assess FFA in intact seeds and in seeds that have been crushed with the lipase able to hydrolyze the TG. Significant differences were found between accessions for all times tested. This procedure was developed to enable us to screen plants in our breeding program for seed lipase activity. We are also screening our germplasm for triglyceride composition to select those plants producing the highest percentage of trivernolin. We will use this data to describe the genetics of both traits.
Kil Sun Yoo, Leonard M. Pike, and Brian K. Hamilton
A simple and fast method for measuring low boiling point (LBP) volatile terpenoids in carrots (Daucus carota L.) was developed by using a direct headspace sampling technique. Seven LBP terpenoid compounds were separated with high sensitivity and consistency via gas chromatography. High boiling point terpenoids above terpinolene were not well characterizable. Standard compounds showed highly linear responses up to 10 μg.g-1, with a detection limit of 0.01 μg.g-1. We confirmed that high α- and β-pinene and/or total terpenoids contributed to harsh or oily flavors. Up to 40 samples can be analyzed in an 8-h day using this method, compared to 10 samples using previous methods.
Frank G. Bethea Jr., Dara Park, Andrew Mount, Nick Menchyk, and Haibo Liu
sample. The extract was transferred into a conical vial and evaporated to dryness with a N 2 stream, for a second time, and the dried residue was prepared for gas chromatography (GC) by derivatization using bis(trimethylsilyl)-acetimide (Sigma
Alan W. Meerow, Stewart T. Reed, Christopher Dunn, and Elena Schnell
senescence. All chemical samples were analyzed using an Agilent 5975B gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometer (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA) in the electron impact mode. The column used was a DB5-MS 25 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 μm column (J&W Scientific
John C. Beaulieu
A likely reason why consumers are not repeat buyers of many fresh-cut fruit is inconsistent or unsatisfactory flavor and/or textural quality. Research toward understanding mechanisms responsible for generation, and/or loss of flavor compounds in fresh-cut fruit is limited. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were utilized to study flavor volatile profiles in anthesis-tagged cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud. cv. Sol Real) during growth, development, and for fresh-cuts prepared from fruit with five distinctly different harvest maturities. One-quarter-slip fruit had a clearly green, well-attached peduncle; 1/2-slip fruit had a distinct abscission detectable at the peduncle, 3/4-slip fruit were approaching commercial harvest, full-slip (FS) fruit are or will cleanly separate from the vine with light pressure; and over-ripeness (OR) was precisely categorized as 2 days past FS. Recovery of total volatiles displayed a linear response and most volatile classes (except aldehydes) generally followed a trend upon processing where FS > 3/4-slip > 1/2-slip > 1/4-slip. On day 0, only 70.0%, 37.7%, and 20.5% total volatiles were recovered in 3/4-slip, 1/2-slip, and 1/4-slip fruit, compared to FS fruit. During fresh-cut storage, percent total esters followed an increasing linear trend that was maturity-dependent. Percent total aromatics and percent aldehydes followed a linear trend that was maturity-dependent whereby 1/4-slip > 1/2-slip > 3/4-slip > FS. During storage, the relative percentage of acetates decreased, and displayed a maturity-dependent curvilinear trend. The magnitude of the slope decreased with maturity, indicating that the effect of storage time decreased as maturity increased. In FS, 3/4-slip, 1/2-slip, and 1/4-slip cubes, acetates comprised 66.9% of all compounds recovered on day 0 yet, only 26.1% to 44.2%, and 21.3% to 32.6% remained on days 9 and 14, respectively. For all maturities, a curvilinear increase in relative percentage of nonacetate esters was observed during storage. There was a uniform change in the ester balance (nonacetate ester:acetate ratio) during fresh-cut storage, which was independent of initial processing maturity. The overall ester ratio changed roughly 2-fold after just 2 days in optimum storage, and after 5 days it increased more than 3-fold. The shift in endogenous ester compounds could be partially responsible for the apparent loss of characteristic flavor in fresh-cut cantaloupe through long-term storage.
Jacob B. Bade, Frederick G. Gmitter Jr., and Kim D. Bowman
Volatile oils were extracted from aqueous leaf suspensions of sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] cultivars Hamlin, Navel, and Valencia and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) cultivars Marsh and Ray Ruby. Pressurized air was used as the sparging gas, and volatile oils were collected in a C-18 cartridge. Gas-liquid chromatography was used to separate and quantify 17 volatile components. Significant quantitative differences for individual components made it possible to distinguish sweet orange from grapefruit (four components), `Marsh' from `Ray Ruby' grapefruit (two components), `Hamlin' from `Valencia' or `Navel' orange (six components), and `Valencia' from `Navel' (three components). The simplicity and sensitivity of the procedure suggest potential use for Citrus taxonomic, genetic, and breeding research.
Ki-Cheol Son, Ray F. Severson, and Stanley J. Kays
Methodology was developed for the rapid quantitative and qualitative screening of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] germplasm for the concentration of the major sweetpotato weevil oviposition stimulant, boehmeryl acetate, and its alcohol, boehmerol. The major surface components were rapidly quantified, using a minimum of plant material. Boehmeryl acetate, present in methylene chloride root extracts, did not degrade when held under normal laboratory conditions for 45 days. Boehmeryl acetate and boehmerol were found only in the outer 1 to 1.2 mm of periderm and the distribution of the compounds appeared to be relatively uniform over the surface of the root.
David E. Kopsell, William M. Randle, and Norman E. Schmidt
The lachrymatory factor [LF, (Z,E) propanethial S-oxide] is a direct product of 1-propenyl cysteine sulfoxide (1-PRENCSO) hydrolysis and dominates onion flavor when present in high concentrations. To evaluate LF as a potential means of assessing flavor quality, two onion cultivars were greenhouse-grown and the bulbs stored for 4 months at 3 ± 1 °C, 70% relative humidity. Onions were evaluated at monthly storage intervals for LF development in bulb macerates following a 120 seconds incubation time. When LF was compared to amounts of 1-PRENCSO hydrolysis, we found that LF was severely underestimated. The relationship of LF and 1-PRENCSO also varied between cultivars during storage. As `Granex 33' was stored for longer periods, the amount of LF measured at 120 seconds more closely reflected the amount of 1-PRENCSO hydrolyzed. LF from `Dehydrator #3', however, was consistently underestimated regardless of storage time. Therefore, a second experiment was conducted using individual bulbs of two onion cultivars in an attempt to determine the optimal incubation time for LF quantification. Maximum LF among bulbs was generally detected 5-10 seconds after tissue maceration for `Dehydrator' and after 15-30 seconds for `Sweet Vidalia'. The amount of LF quantified between 5 and 120 seconds decreased linearly for nine of ten bulbs of `Dehydrator', but this trend was less apparent for `Sweet Vidalia'. A uniform LF incubation time for individual bulbs, therefore, may not be possible for all cultivars. These data show a complex relationship among and within onion cultivars for 1-PRENCSO hydrolysis and the formation of LF in onion macerates.