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Robert F. Polomski, Douglas G. Bielenberg, Ted Whitwell, Milton D. Taylor, William C. Bridges, and Stephen J. Klaine

constructed wetlands, specifically saleable horticultural plants with remediation potential. Similar to obligate wetland species, aquatic garden plants also thrive in waterlogged environments and offer the potential benefits of phytoremediation and economical

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Donald N. Maynard

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Min-Jung Lee

The objective of this study was to examine how horticultural activities, such as pressing flowers, planting, creating flower arrangements, and making topiaries, affect stress relief for patients who are mentally challenged. Two experiments were conducted in this study. In Expt. 1, the heart rate variation (HRV) of 30 mentally challenged people from the Daegu Rehabilitation Center (Daegu, South Korea) was measured. The pressed flower group and the planting group showed a significant improvement (P < 0.01) in the sd of the normal–normal interval HRV measurements (SDNN), which improved from 42.37 to 45.54 ms. The planting group's SDNN and low frequency (LF) significantly improved from 38.68 to 45.49 ms and from 5.87 to 6.58 ms, respectively, at P < 0.05. A significant improvement in total power (TP) and high frequency (HF) at P < 0.01 was also observed; results changed from 6.90 to 7.46 ms and from 4.76 to 5.28 ms, respectively. The flower arrangement group displayed a significant difference in LF (from 5.26 to 5.89 ms) at P < 0.05. Finally, the topiary group showed a significant difference in TP (from 6.72 to 7.23 ms) at P < 0.05. In Expt. 2, the cortisol levels of 20 mentally challenged people from the P Residential Home (Yeongcheon, South Korea) were measured. Compared with the baseline measurement, the pressed flower group displayed a significant decrease in cortisol density from 4.66 nmol·L−1 on day 1 to 4.64 nmol·L−1 on day 7; however, no significant difference was observed on day 4. The planting group showed a significantly decreasing difference (3.08 nmol·L−1) in cortisol density (8.84 nmol·L−1) on day 7 compared with day 4 of planting activities. Finally, the topiary group continued to show a significant decrease (from 9.98 to 7.0 nmol·L−1) in cortisol density at each cortisol collection after the first day of topiary activities. It was concluded that indoor horticultural activities have an effect on mentally challenged people's stress relief. In particular, planting activities were effective for this relief.

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Zhanao Deng, Natalia A. Peres, and Johan Desaeger

Caladiums (Caladium ×hortulanum Birdsey, Araceae Juss.) are ornamental aroids often used as container or landscape plants (Evans et al., 1992). They are valued for their variably shaped, bright foliage. Most commercial caladium plants are produced by forcing tubers in containers. Florida growers produce essentially all the caladium tubers used in the United States and in the world for pot plant production and tuber sales (Bell et al., 1998; Deng et al., 2008b). Roughly, two-thirds of Florida-produced caladium tubers are used to produce pot plants, and one-third are used for direct planting in the landscape.

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Robert F. Polomski, Douglas G. Bielenberg, Ted Whitwell, Milton D. Taylor, William C. Bridges, and Stephen J. Klaine

, commercially available aquatic garden plants can be used in a production/remediation system that could generate revenue. Few studies have examined the ability of aquatic garden plants to thrive in SSF CWs and recover nursery runoff rates of N and P ( Arnold et

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Thomas G. Ranney, Nathan P. Lynch, Paul R. Fantz, and Paul Cappiello

Fothergilla L. spp. (fothergilla or witch-alder; Hamamelidaceae R. Brown) are exceptional garden plants ( Clark, 1987 ; Dirr, 1998 ; Flint, 1984 ; Weaver, 1971 ) that display showy, white, fragrant flowers in a terminal spike that resembles

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Jennifer Drew, Chengyan Yue, Neil O. Anderson, and Philip G. Pardey

hedonic pricing model is adapted to the U.S. wholesale ornamental plant market and, in particular, the bedding and garden plant and nursery plant markets to analyze two forms of IP rights used on plants (i.e., the plant patent and the trademark). By

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Chengyan Yue and Bridget K. Behe

efforts would encourage more consumers to patronize TF for impulse purchases. We grouped floral products into six categories: arranged fresh cut flowers, unarranged cut flowers, foliage plants, flowering house plants, outdoor bedding or garden plants