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Eric B. Brennan and Richard F. Smith

environmental problems during winter storms by concentrating rainfall into the furrow between beds that accelerates runoff and reduces the infiltration needed to recharge the groundwater, the sole source of irrigation and drinking water in this region. Some of

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Borut Gosar and Dea Baričevič

international markets. Ridge and furrow rainwater-harvesting (RFRH) systems with mulches were first researched in the flat, lowland, semiarid conditions of northwest China ( Li et al., 2000 , 2001 ) to improve water availability and to increase crop production

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Melissa Bonham, Gerald M. Ghidiu, Erin Hitchner, and Elwood L. Rossell

compare the effectiveness of a seed treatment of fipronil, an in-furrow application of thiamethoxam, and multiple foliar applications of spinosad or diazinon directed at the base of the plant for control of the carrot weevil in processing carrot. Materials

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Erik B.G. Feibert, Clinton C. Shock, and Lamont D. Saunders

Onion yield and grade were compared under sprinkler, subsurface drip, and furrow irrigation in 1992, 1993, and 1994. Furrow-irrigated onions were planted on two double rows on 1.12-m-wide beds at 352,000 seeds/ha. Sprinkler- and drip-irrigated onions were planted in nine single rows on a 2.24-m-wide bed at 432,100 seeds/acre. Drip plots had three drip lines buried 0.10 m deep in each 2.24-m bed. Soil water potential at 0.2-m depth was measured by tensiometers and granular matrix sensors (Watermark Model 200SS, Irrometer Co., Riverside, Calif.). Furrow irrigations were started when the soil water potential at the 0.2-m depth reached –25 kPa. Drip-irrigated onions had soil water potential at the 0.2-m depth kept wetter than –25 kPa by daily replacement of crop evapotranspiration (Etc). Sprinkler irrigations were started when the accumulated Etc reached 25 mm. Sprinkler irrigation resulted in significantly higher onion yield than furrow irrigation in 1993 and 1994. Sprinkler irrigation resulted in higher marketable onion yield than furrow irrigation in 1993. Drip irrigation resulted in significantly higher onion yield than furrow irrigation every year. Drip irrigation resulted in higher marketable onion yield than furrow irrigation in 1992 and 1994. Marketable onion yield was reduced in 1993 due to rot during storage.

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John M. Swiader and William H. Shoemaker

Field studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 to evaluate the effects of in-furrow-placed (i.e., applied directly in the seed channel) starter fertilizer on the emergence, maturity, and yield response of early sweet corn. In both years, three starter fertilizer treatments were applied: APP, with N and P at 13 and 19 kg·ha-1, respectively (13N—19P kg·ha-1), either banded (5 cm below and 5 cm to the side of the seed) or placed in-furrow, and a control (no starter fertilizer). Additionally, in 1995, the rate of APP was increased to supply 26N—38P kg·ha-1 in combination with either band (5 × 5 cm) or in-furrow placement. Seedling emergence was delayed whenever starter fertilizer was applied with the seed; however, significant reductions (≈21%) in plant stand occurred only at the high rate of in-furrow placement. In both years, all starter treatments had a positive effect on seedling dry-matter production, and hastened silking. In-furrow application of 13N—19P kg·ha-1 increased marketable ear yields 34% in 1995, but had no effect in 1994. Lack of yield response to the high rate of in-furrow fertilizer in 1995 was primarily a function of reduced stand, as ear number and ear mass per plant, and average ear size were similar to those in the other starter treatments. Based on these results, in-furrow APP at 13N—19P kg·ha-1 appears to be an effective starter fertilization regime for early sweet corn, comparable in effect to banded 26N—38P kg·ha-1. However, high rates of in-furrow APP may reduce stands. Although significant yield response to in-furrow starter fertilizer may not always be realized, the increased early seedling growth may itself be a benefit, since fast-growing seedlings are more likely to be tolerant of adverse environmental conditions than are less vigorous plants. Chemical name used: ammonium polyphosphate (APP).

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John M. Swiader and William H. Shoemaker

Field studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 to evaluate the effects of in-furrow-placed (i.e., applied directly in the seed channel) starter fertilizer on the emergence, maturity, and yield response of early sweet corn. In both years, three starter fertilizer treatments were applied: APP, with N and P at 13 and 19 kg·ha-1, respectively (13N-19P kg·ha-1), either banded (5 cm below and 5 cm to the side of the seed) or placed in-furrow, and a control (no starter fertilizer). Additionally, in 1995, the rate of APP was increased to supply 26N-38P kg·ha-1 in combination with either band (5 × 5 cm) or in-furrow placement. Seedling emergence was delayed whenever starter fertilizer was applied with the seed; however, significant reductions (≈21%) in plant stand occurred only at the high rate of in-furrow placement. In both years, all starter treatments had a positive effect on seedling dry-matter production, and hastened silking. In-furrow application of 13N-19P kg·ha-1 increased marketable ear yields 34% in 1995, but had no effect in 1994. Lack of yield response to the high rate of in-furrow fertilizer in 1995 was primarily a function of reduced stand, as ear number and ear mass per plant, and average ear size were similar to those in the other starter treatments. Based on these results, in-furrow APP at 13N-19P kg·ha-1 appears to be an effective starter fertilization regime for early sweet corn, comparable in effect to banded 26N-38P kg·ha-1. However, high rates of in-furrow APP may reduce stands. Although significant yield response to in-furrow starter fertilizer may not always be realized, the increased early seedling growth may itself be a benefit, since fast-growing seedlings are more likely to be tolerant of adverse environmental conditions than are less vigorous plants. Chemical name used: ammonium polyphosphate (APP).

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C.C. Shock, L.B. Jensen, J.H. Hobson, M. Seddigh, B.M. Shock, L.D. Saunders, and T.D. Stieber

Onion (Allium cepa var. cepa L.) is extensively grown under furrow irrigation in the western United States. Wheel compaction of furrows increases water runoff and erosion, and can lead to poor lateral water movement and reduced yields. We studied the effects of 560 to 800 lb/acre (630 to 900 kg·ha-1) wheat straw mechanically applied to the bottom of irrigation furrows on yield and bulb size of sweet Spanish onions in commercial onion fields in 1988, 1990, and 1991, and at an experiment station in 1991 and 1995. Furrows in commercial fields were either compacted with tractor wheels or not. In the commercial fields, straw application increased onion yield in plots with compacted furrows in 1988 and in all plots (with or without compacted furrows) in 1990. At the experiment station, straw mulch increased onion yield 64% in 1991, and 74% in 1995. Straw application primarily increased yields of jumbo (3 to 4 inches; 76 to 102 mm) and colossal (>4 inches; 10 cm) onions, whereas there was no effect on medium (2.25 to 3 inches; 57 to 76 mm) onions. We attributed yield improvements to decreased water runoff and increased lateral water movement and soil moisture.

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Daniel I. Leskovar, J. Clark Ward, Russell W. Sprague, and Avraham Meiri

Restrictions on pumping water from underground aquifers are limiting vegetable production in Southwest Texas. To determine yield, quality, and water use efficiency (WUE) of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. group Cantalupensis, `Caravelle'), six irrigation systems with varying input levels and their interactions with stand establishment (containerized transplants vs. direct seeding) were examined. Irrigation systems were: 1) pre-irrigated followed by dryland conditions; 2) furrow/no mulch; 3) furrow/mulch (40-μm-thick black polyethylene); 4) surface drip (0 cm depth)/mulch; 5) subsurface drip (10-cm depth)/mulch; and 6) subsurface drip (30-cm depth)/mulch. Field experiments were conducted on a silty clay loam soil during four seasons (1995-98). In 1995, marketable fruit yields were greater for subsurface drip systems at 30-cm depth than for furrow systems, with or without plastic mulch. Transplants grown with surface drip irrigation produced 75% greater yield in the 9-count fruit class size during early harvest than did those grown with subsurface drip (10- or 30-cm depth), but total yield was unaffected by drip tape depth placement. In 1996, the driest season of these studies, direct-seeded plants had higher total yields than did transplants; yield was greatest for direct-seeded plants on subsurface drip placed at 10- or 30-cm soil depth, and for transplants on subsurface drip at 10-cm depth. Soluble solids content was minimally affected by irrigation method, but was higher in fruit from transplants than in those from direct-seeded plants in 3 years. Across all seasons, the average water applied for drip systems was 53% lower than that for conventional furrow systems, and WUE was 2.3-fold as great.

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David R. Bryla, Thomas J. Trout, James E. Ayars, and R. Scott Johnson

A 3-year study was conducted in central California to compare the effects of furrow, microjet, surface drip, and sub surface drip irrigation on vegetative growth and early production of newly planted `Crimson Lady' peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] trees. Furrow treatments were irrigated every 7, 14, or 21 days; microjet treatments were irrigated every 2-3, 7, or 14 days; and surface and subsurface drip (with one, two, or three buried laterals per row) treatments were irrigated when accumulated crop evapotranspiration reached 2.5 mm. The overall performance showed that trees irrigated by surface and subsurface drip were significantly larger, produced higher yields, and had higher water use efficiency than trees irrigated by microjets. In fact, more than twice as much water had to be applied to trees with microjets than to trees with drip systems in order to achieve the same amount of vegetative growth and yield. Yield and water use efficiency were also higher under surface and subsurface drip irrigation than under furrow irrigation, although tree size was similar among the treatments. Little difference was found between trees irrigated by surface and subsurface drip, except that trees irrigated with only one subsurface drip lateral were less vigorous, but not less productive, than trees irrigated by one surface drip lateral, or by two or three subsurface drip laterals. Within furrow and microjet treatments, irrigation frequency had little effect on tree development and performance with the exception that furrow irrigation every 3 weeks produced smaller trees than furrow irrigation every 1 or 2 weeks.

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E.V. Herrero, J.P. Mitchell, W.T. Lanini, S.R. Temple, E.M. Miyao, R.D. Morse, and E. Campiglia

No-till processing tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) production in four winter cover crop-derived mulches was evaluated in 1997 and 1998 in Five Points, Calif. The effectiveness of two medics, `Sava' snail medic (Medicago scutellata Mill.) (sava), and `Sephi' barrel medic (Medicago truncatula Gaertn.) (sephi), and two cereal/legume cover crop mixtures, triticale/`Lana' woolypod vetch (X Triticosecale Wittm./Vicia dasycarpa Ten.) (triticale/vetch) and rye/`Lana' woolypod vetch (Secale cereale L./V. dasycarpa) (rye/vetch), was compared with two conventionally tilled fallow controls (with and without herbicide) (fallow+h and fallow-h) in suppressing weeds and maintaining yields with reduced fertilizer inputs. The comparison was conducted as a split plot, with three N fertilization rates (0, 100, and 200 lb/acre; 0, 112, and 224 kg·ha-1) as main plots and cover crops and fallow controls as subplots. Tomato seedlings were transplanted 3 weeks after the cover crops had been mowed and sprayed with herbicide. There were no significant differences in weed cover in the no-till cover crop treatments relative to the fallow controls in 1997. Early season weed suppression in rye/vetch and triticale/vetch plots was similar to herbicide-treated fallow (fallow+h) in 1998, however, later in the 1998 season weed suppression was best in the fallow+h. Tissue N was highest in the fallow treatments in both 1997 and 1998. Yields were highest in the triticale/vetch and fallow and lowest in sephi treatments in 1997, but there were no differences among treatments in 1998. These results demonstrate the feasibility of no-till mulch production of furrow irrigated processing tomatoes and identify opportunities for further optimization of the system.