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Whitney J. Garton, Mark Mazzola, Travis R. Alexander, and Carol A. Miles

orchards. However, Garton et al. (2018b) found new N. malicorticis infections of susceptible hosts to occur after applying many of these common fungicide treatments on cider apple trees in northwest Washington. Further, in commercial orchards, these

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Jiaqi Yan, Megan M. Dewdney, Pamela D. Roberts, and Mark A. Ritenour

. There is currently no report of hot water treatment or heated fungicide treatment to delay CBS lesion development on citrus fruit after harvest. The objective of this study was to investigate whether hot water or heated fungicide treatments can reduce

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Robert F. Bevacqua and Dawn M. VanLeeuwen

Chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) yields are highly variable and are strongly influenced by disease and weather. The goal of two field experiments was to evaluate crop management factors, especially planting date, that could contribute to improved and more consistent crop production. Current practice in New Mexico is to direct seed the crop from 13 to 27 Mar. In the first experiment, chile pepper was direct seeded on three planting dates, 13, 20, and 27 Mar. 2000, without or with a fungicide treatment of pentachloronitrobenzene and mefenoxam for the control of damping off. The results indicate planting date had no effect on stand establishment or yield. Fungicide treatment, significantly reduced stand, but had no effect on yield. In the second experiment, chile pepper was direct seeded on six planting dates, 13, 20, 27 Mar. and 3, 10, 17, Apr. 2001, with or without an application of phosphorus fertilizer, P at 29.4 kg·ha-1, banded beneath the seed row. During the growing season, this experimental planting suffered, as did commercial plantings in New Mexico, from high mortality and stunting due to beet curly top virus, a disease transmitted by the beet leafhopper. The results indicate planting date had a significant effect on crop performance. The best stand establishment and highest yield were associated with the earliest planting date, 13 Mar. This date also resulted in the least viral disease damage. Phosphorus fertilizer had no effect on stand establishment or yield. Chemical names used: pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB); (R)-2-[(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-methoxyacetylamino]-propionic acid methyl ester (mefenoxam).

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Gary J. Wilfret

Intact tubers of Caladium cv. Florida Elise were soaked for 30 min in water at 24 or 50 °C in l998 and manually cut into cubes with 2-cm sides. Propagules were planted on 15-cm centers in raised sand beds covered with white plastic. Tubers were harvested in 6 months, air-dried, cleaned, weighed, and graded. Yield of No. 2 tubers (>1.9 <3.8 cm diam) was increased 31%, total tuber weight was 13% greater, and the production index was 13% larger due to hot-water treatment. No differences were determined for other tuber sizes. Tubers harvested from both treatments were soaked for 30 min in 1999 in water at 24 or 50 °C or in water at 24 or 50 °C that contained the fungicide Systec 85WDG [thiophanate methyl(dimethyl{(1,2-phenylene)-bis(iminocarbonothioyl)}bis{carbamate}] at 33.6 g/20 L. Tubers were cut and planted as in l998 and harvested in 2000. Tuber yields and production indices were greater in all hot-water treatments, but were not increased by fungicides alone. Yields from tubers that were not hot-water treated in l998 but were soaked in hot water in l999 were similar to those tubers that were hot-water-treated in both years. Fungicides did not have an additive effect when hot-water was used.

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Ramona A. Reiser and Robert J. McGovern

Zantedeschia elliotiana `Flame' is a yellow calla with unique rust-colored blush, which is prone to a fungal/bacterial disease complex. Keeping calla rhizomes healthy and free of weakening by the most common fungal organisms Fusarium and Rhizoctonia, which minimizes secondary invasion and toppling by Erwinia carotova soft rot, the most prevalent cause of calla loss in production. Rhizomes were treated by pre-plant bulb dip or post plant drench either with fungicide or bactericide alone or in combination. Pot loss totaled with plants showing a lack of vigor resulted in 8%, 12%, and 14% loss in the most effective three treatments, which were: 1) the common commercial pretreatment (Champ II, Dithane, and Agtrol) 2) control plants and 3) RootShield (Trichoderma harzianum T-22). Upper (leaf and stem) plant fresh weights corresponded having heaviest weights of 47.8, 53.4, and 51.1 g and lower (bulb and root) with 129.5, 135.8, and 127.7 g/plant. The three least-effective treatments were streptomycin sulfate, Kocide 101, and ammonium bicarbonate, which showed losses of 26%, 30%, and 36%. Fresh weights coincided at 30.5, 39.9, and 36.7 g/upper portion and 117.1, 116.5, and 113.1 g/lower portion, lightest of all treatments. The remaining four fungicides with streptomycin sulfate, in order of effectiveness at 16%, 16%, 18%, and 20% loss, were Consyst, Banrot, Medallion, and Heritage. When loss exceeded 20%, flower number/plant also declined. Because plant survival and vigor were not increased with trial chemicals, the common commercial pretreatment or no treatment at all is recommended. Continued research might reveal beneficial optimum rates for other chemicals.

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Andrew L. Thomas, Richard J. Crawford Jr., Larry J. Havermann, Wendy L. Applequist, Besa E. Schweitzer, Scott F. Woodbury, and James S. Miller

Black cohosh [Actaea racemosa L., Cimicifuga racemosa L. (Nutt)] is a perennial herb commonly used for treatment of menopausal symptoms in humans. The increasing demand for this plant is leading to serious over-harvesting from the wild and presents an opportunity for potentially profitable cultivation. The plant produces a large rhizome, the principal medicinal organ, which appears to be especially sensitive to heavy soil, and prone to fungal attack if soil water drainage is not adequate. After an earlier crop failure (attributed to a PhytophthoraPythium disease complex) in an established black cohosh nursery bed, two experiments were conducted in the same soil to determine if certain horticultural approaches could help to avert fungal infection under less-than-ideal conditions. Treatments included single postplanting applications of the fungicide mefenoxam, transplantation in fall versus spring, and shallow (0.5 cm) versus deep (6.5 cm) placement of rhizomes. Shallow placement significantly improved long-term rhizome survival, but was still not able to compensate adequately for a poorly-drained soil. The horticultural approaches we studied do not appear to be reliable alternatives to proper site selection in the cultivation of black cohosh.

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Derek W. Barchenger, John R. Clark, Renee T. Threlfall, Luke R. Howard, and Cindi R. Brownmiller

. No insecticides or other pest control compounds were applied to the vines other than those vines that received the fungicide treatments. The vines used in the study had full crops produced each year, and no crop reduction resulting from winter injury

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Guirong Zhang, Mohammad Babadoost, Alan De Young, Eric T. Johnson, and David A. Schisler

fungicide treatments was significantly lower than that of untreated plots (see Table 2 ). There was no significant difference in disease severity among 19 fungicide treatments on 18 Aug. 2014, 35 d after the application (DAA) of the fungicide treatments

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Yu Huang, John E. Kaminski, and Peter J. Landschoot

, as has been done in previous studies ( McDonald et al., 2006 ; Pigati et al., 2010 ). Fungicide treatments included Daconil Ultrex 82.5 WDG ® (chlorothalonil: 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile; Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC) applied at