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Altaf Qadir and Fumio Hashinaga

Nitrous oxide (N2O) was tested as a potential fungicidal or fungistatic compound. Twelve postharvest fungi were exposed to 10 to 80 kPa with 20 kPa O2 in a static system at 20 °C. These fungi were divided into N2O high-, medium- and low-sensitive groups. Based on growth sensitivity, growth of high-sensitive fungi was completely inhibited, and that of medium-sensitive fungi up to 85%. With low-sensitive fungi, significant inhibition was achieved only when the fungi were exposed to N2O continuously for 6 days. Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr., Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds, Monilinia fructicola (Winter) Honey, Penicillium expansum Link, Penicillium italicum Wehmer, Phytophthora citrophthora (R.E. Smith and E.H. Smith) Leonian and Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrens.: Fr.) Vuillemin, were high-sensitive; Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spaulding was medium-sensitive, and Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend1: Fr. f. sp. fragariae Winks and Williams, Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend1: Fr. f. sp. lycopersici (Saccardo) Snyder and Hansen., and Geotrichum candidum Link., were low-sensitive fungi. Addition of up to 100 μL·L-l C2H4 did not reduce inhibition caused by N2O. The inhibitory effect of N2O was considered to be due to biophysical properties similar to CO2, the competitive inhibition on C2H4 action, or the biosynthesis of methionine. These results indicate the potential of N2O to control some postharvest decay fungi.

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Amelia Camprubí and Cinta Calvet

We thank Christopher Walker from The Forestry Commission (United Kingdom) for his advice and encouragement in the classification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the Servicio de Protección de los Vegetales de Valencia (Spain) and the

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R. Paul Schreiner and Tian Tian

Grapevines ( Vitis vinifera L.) are highly reliant on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to obtain ample phosphorus (P) from the red hill soils used for vineyards in western Oregon ( Schreiner, 2007 ). Grapevines are particularly receptive

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Andreas Westphal, Nicole L. Snyder, Lijuan Xing, and James J. Camberato

inhibitory effects on colonization with mycorrhizal fungi resulting from surplus nitrogen or phosphorus ( Menge et al., 1978 ; Sylvia and Neal, 1990 ). The common practice of producing watermelon seedlings in peat-based potting mixes under controlled

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Charles C. Reilly, Bruce W. Wood, and Katherine L. Stevenson

pathogens associated with symptomatic tissues of the shoot dieback maladies. The present study reports the types of fungi present in symptomatic tissues of SpSDM- and SuSDM-associated shoots and reports that SpSDM is linked to degree of physiological stress

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Benjamin C. Garland, Michelle S. Schroeder-Moreno, Gina E. Fernandez, and Nancy G. Creamer

tolerance for drought conditions ( Augé, 2001 ), and greater resistance to soilborne pathogens ( Linderman, 1995 ). Mycorrhizal fungi have been demonstrated to increase strawberry growth and nutrient acquisition ( Taylor and Harrier, 2001 ) and decrease root

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Azeezahmed Shaik and Sukhbir Singh

( Burnett et al., 2016 ). The AMFs can be used as biofertilizers to increase the yield and quality in the vegetable production ( Baum et al., 2015 ). AMFs are obligate symbiotic fungi that help in an extension of the plant root system to enhance immobile

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Lisa A. Beirn, William A. Meyer, Bruce B. Clarke, and Jo Anne Crouch

lacking, thus slowing progress in the development of resistance to multiple fungal races or strains. Two primary factors have contributed to the limited advancements in the control and study of turfgrass rust fungi: 1) the biotrophic lifestyle of the

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Bryan K. Sales, David R. Bryla, Kristin M. Trippe, Jerry E. Weiland, Carolyn F. Scagel, Bernadine C. Strik, and Dan M. Sullivan

to increase populations of beneficial soil microorganisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi ( Amendola et al., 2017 ; Bird et al., 2008 ; LeCroy et al., 2013 ; Lehmann et al., 2011 ; Solaiman et al., 2010 ), and suppress development of soilborne

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Stephen M. Southwick, Frederick S. Davies, N. E. El-Gholl, and C. L. Schoulties


Species of Alternaria and Gloeosporium were most often isolated from fruit with blossom-end yellowing (BEY), a disorder associated with summer fruit drop of navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck]. Fruit inoculated with pure cultures of these fungi did not develop BEY; however, wounded fruit which were inoculated with fungi produced higher levels of ethylene and more extensive BEY than wounded, noninoculated fruit. Fruit with BEY produced higher amounts of ethylene than symptomless fruit. The methoxy analog of rhizobitoxine (methoxyvinylglycine) did not reduce ethylene levels, and silver nitrate increased ethylene production from fruit with BEY. Ethylene and fungi are associated with BEY of navel orange but do not appear to be causal factors.