Nitrous oxide (N2O) was tested as a potential fungicidal or fungistatic compound. Twelve postharvest fungi were exposed to 10 to 80 kPa with 20 kPa O2 in a static system at 20 °C. These fungi were divided into N2O high-, medium- and low-sensitive groups. Based on growth sensitivity, growth of high-sensitive fungi was completely inhibited, and that of medium-sensitive fungi up to 85%. With low-sensitive fungi, significant inhibition was achieved only when the fungi were exposed to N2O continuously for 6 days. Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr., Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds, Monilinia fructicola (Winter) Honey, Penicillium expansum Link, Penicillium italicum Wehmer, Phytophthora citrophthora (R.E. Smith and E.H. Smith) Leonian and Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrens.: Fr.) Vuillemin, were high-sensitive; Glomerella cingulata (Stoneman) Spaulding was medium-sensitive, and Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend1: Fr. f. sp. fragariae Winks and Williams, Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend1: Fr. f. sp. lycopersici (Saccardo) Snyder and Hansen., and Geotrichum candidum Link., were low-sensitive fungi. Addition of up to 100 μL·L-l C2H4 did not reduce inhibition caused by N2O. The inhibitory effect of N2O was considered to be due to biophysical properties similar to CO2, the competitive inhibition on C2H4 action, or the biosynthesis of methionine. These results indicate the potential of N2O to control some postharvest decay fungi.
Altaf Qadir and Fumio Hashinaga
Amelia Camprubí and Cinta Calvet
We thank Christopher Walker from The Forestry Commission (United Kingdom) for his advice and encouragement in the classification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the Servicio de Protección de los Vegetales de Valencia (Spain) and the
Andreas Westphal, Nicole L. Snyder, Lijuan Xing, and James J. Camberato
inhibitory effects on colonization with mycorrhizal fungi resulting from surplus nitrogen or phosphorus ( Menge et al., 1978 ; Sylvia and Neal, 1990 ). The common practice of producing watermelon seedlings in peat-based potting mixes under controlled
Charles C. Reilly, Bruce W. Wood, and Katherine L. Stevenson
pathogens associated with symptomatic tissues of the shoot dieback maladies. The present study reports the types of fungi present in symptomatic tissues of SpSDM- and SuSDM-associated shoots and reports that SpSDM is linked to degree of physiological stress
Benjamin C. Garland, Michelle S. Schroeder-Moreno, Gina E. Fernandez, and Nancy G. Creamer
tolerance for drought conditions ( Augé, 2001 ), and greater resistance to soilborne pathogens ( Linderman, 1995 ). Mycorrhizal fungi have been demonstrated to increase strawberry growth and nutrient acquisition ( Taylor and Harrier, 2001 ) and decrease root
Lisa A. Beirn, William A. Meyer, Bruce B. Clarke, and Jo Anne Crouch
lacking, thus slowing progress in the development of resistance to multiple fungal races or strains. Two primary factors have contributed to the limited advancements in the control and study of turfgrass rust fungi: 1) the biotrophic lifestyle of the
Bryan K. Sales, David R. Bryla, Kristin M. Trippe, Jerry E. Weiland, Carolyn F. Scagel, Bernadine C. Strik, and Dan M. Sullivan
to increase populations of beneficial soil microorganisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi ( Amendola et al., 2017 ; Bird et al., 2008 ; LeCroy et al., 2013 ; Lehmann et al., 2011 ; Solaiman et al., 2010 ), and suppress development of soilborne
Rhoda Burrows and Francis Pfleger
Growing a plant host in association with other plant species (i.e., increasing diversity) changes the composition of the associated arbuscular–mycorrhizal (AM) fungal community. We tested whether this alteration in the fungal community causes significant differences in the growth of Schizachyrium scoparium L. (Little Bluestem, a C4 grass) or Lespedeza capitata L. (Bush clover, a legume). Seedlings were transplanted into pasteurized soil inoculated with soil from monoculture plots of Schizachyrium or Lespedeza, respectively, vs. plots containing one, seven, or 15 additional plant species. Soil washes from a composite of the plots were added to all pots, including non-inoculated controls, to reduce differences in the non-AM microbial communities. Spore counts of the inoculum from Lespedeza plots showed increasing numbers of AM fungal spores and species richness with increasing plant diversity; this was not true with the Schizachyrium plots, possibly because Schizachyrium may be a better host to more species of AM fungi than Lespedeza. Both Schizachyrium and Lespedeza responded to inoculation with increased growth compared to non-inoculated controls. Tissue analyses of both species showed that inoculation increased the percentage of Cu, and lowered the percentage of Mn compared to control plants. Schizachyrium showed no significant differences in growth due to inoculum source (1-, 2-, 8-, or 16-species plots); while Lespedeza showed increases in root and shoot weights with increasing source-plot diversity.
Cui-ping Hua, Zhong-kui Xie, Zhi-jiang Wu, Yu-bao Zhang, Zhi-hong Guo, Yang Qiu, Le Wang, and Ya-jun Wang
obvious signs of soils with continuous cropping is that the soil is transformed from “bacterial” to “fungal,” and fungi are the main pathogens of plant disease ( Ibekwe et al., 2002 ), including Fusarium , Rhizoctonia , Pythium , Cylindrocarpon , and
Larry J. Kuhns, Elizabeth A. Brantley, and Donald D. Davis
Homeowners are often troubled by the presence of slime molds, stinkhorns, and mushrooms growing in their landscape mulches; but, they are not harmful to landscape plants, and no known health hazards are associated with them unless they are eaten. They can be discarded or ignored and they will quickly decompose. The fruiting bodies of the artillery fungus are barely visible (tiny cream or orange-brown cups approximately 1/10 of an inch in diameter), but they are the source of serious problems, many of which have resulted in insurance claims and lawsuits. They are phototropic and orient themselves toward bright surfaces, such as light-colored siding on homes and automobiles. They “shoot” their black, sticky spore masses, which can be windblown to the second story of a house. The masses stick to the side of buildings and automobiles, resembling small specks of tar. Once in place, the spore masses are very difficult to remove without damaging the surface to which they are attached. When removed, a stain remains. A few of the spots are barely noticeable, but, as they accumulate, they may become very unsightly. To date, there are no known controls for this fungus, but a research program studying possible solutions has been initiated. We ask that anyone who has information or experience with the artillery fungus contact us to exchange information. A brochure describing the four common types of fungi growing in landscape mulches in the eastern United States—mushrooms, slime molds, bird's nest fungus, and the artillery fungus—has also been prepared to educate consumers.