CITPATH, a computerized diagnostic key and information system, was developed to identify the major fungal diseases of citrus foliage and fruit in Florida. This software provides hypertext-linked descriptions and graphic displays of symptoms, maps of geographic occurrence, diagrams of disease development, and management strategies, with reference to chemical control methods detailed in the current Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide. Reciprocal lists of citrus cultivars susceptible to specific diseases and diseases affecting specific cultivars are included. Developed for commercial growers, county extension programs, citrus horticulture classes, and master gardeners, this software is available for MS-DOS-based computers and on CD-ROM disks containing other citrus databases.
Fungal diseases have their greatest impact on citrus in Florida by reducing tree vigor, fruit yield, and quality. Given the complex etiology of these diseases, this software was developed to facilitate diagnosis of symptoms and to explain the dynamics of Alternaria brown spot of mandarins, greasy spot, melanose, Phytophthora brown rot, post-bloom fruit drop, and sour orange scab. CITPATH includes a diagnostic key to identify symptoms of the major fungal diseases of citrus foliage and fruit in Florida and a hypertext program containing a description and graphic display of symptoms, maps of geographic occurrence, diagrams of disease development, and management strategies. Users can also consult a list of citrus cultivars susceptible to specific diseases and a reciprocal list of diseases affecting specific cultivars. Chemical control methods are discussed briefly with reference to the current Florida Citrus Spray Guide, a hardcopy of which is included with the software purchase. Developed for commercial growers, county extension programs, citrus horticulture classes, and master gardeners, this software is available on CD-ROM disks containing other citrus databases and as a separate disk for MS-DOS-based computers.
Ozone treatment has many advantages for control of fungal diseases. There are no residue concerns, no registration is required, and it is non-specific, therefore potentially effective against a broad spectrum of pathogens. However, ozone is known to cause plant damage. There is little information available on either the ozone tolerance of floriculture crops or the levels required to kill plant pathogens under commercial conditions. Nine floriculture crops (begonia, petunia, Impatiens, Kalanchoe, pot roses, pot chrysanthemums, lilies, snapdragons and Alstroemeria) were subjected to increasing levels of ozone. Trials were conducted at 5 and 20 °C (90% to 95% RH) and ozone exposure was for 4 days for either 10 hours per day (simulating night treatment) or for 10 minutes every hour. Damage was assessed immediately after treatment and after an additional 3 days at room temperature in ozone-free air. Trials were terminated for the crop when an unacceptable level of damage was observed. Trials to determine the lethal dose for actively growing pathogens (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria zinniae and Botrytis cinerea) and fungal spores were conducted under identical conditions. Ozone tolerance varied with plant type and ranged between <0.2 and 3ppm. Generally, the crops surveyed were more susceptible to ozone damage at the low temperature. As a group, the bedding plants were the least tolerant. Fungal spores were killed at treatment levels between 0.8 and 2 ppm ozone. The actively growing fungal mycelium was still viable at 3 ppm ozone when the trial had to be terminated due to ozone-induced structural damage in the treatment chambers. Under the trial conditions, only the Kalanchoe would be able to tolerate the high levels of ozone required to kill the fungal spores.
Plant breeders must be aware of sources of resistance to pathogens that affect their crops. Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schl. f. sp. pisi Snyd. & Hans. is a fungal disease that affects peas and is important worldwide. Resistance to the different races of the pathogen has been identified in adapted germplasm and from specific accessions in the United States World Collection of peas (Pisum sativum L.). The goal of this study was to evaluate the resistance to fusarium wilt race 2 in the Pisum core collection. Of the 452 accessions screened, 62 (14%) were resistant. The resistant accessions included accessions from P.s. ssp. elatius that were collected from 24 different countries. The wide distribution of resistance around the world precludes the identification of any single country or region as a source of resistance. Of the 62 accessions resistant to race 2, 39 are also resistant to race 1 based on data obtained from GRIN. One of the wild progenitors, PI 344012, possessed resistance to races 1 and 2.
The effectiveness of a disease-warning system and efficacy of reduced-risk fungicides for management of sooty blotch (Peltaster fructicola, Leptodontium elatius, Geastrumia polystigmatis) and flyspeck (Schizothyrium pomi) (SBFS) of apple (Malus × domestica) were evaluated in Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin in 2001 and 2002. Warning system-timed applications of the second-cover fungicide spray occurred when 175 h of leaf wetness had accumulated; wetness data were derived either from a sensor placed beneath the canopy of apple trees (on-site) or according to remotely sensed estimates. In replicated experiments, using sensor measurements as inputs to the warning system saved one to three (mean 1.8) and zero to four (mean 2.3) fungicide sprays per season in 2001 and 2002, respectively. Because remotely estimated wetness hours accumulated more rapidly than did on-site measurements, the warning system using remotely sensed wetness data saved only zero to one (mean 0.3) and zero to two (mean 0.7) sprays per season in 2001 and 2002, respectively. SBFS incidence in the integrated pest management (IPM) plots did not differ significantly from that of conventional calendar-based fungicide sprays plots in 11 of 12 site-years. When on-site wetness measurements were used in demonstration trials at 14 cooperating commercial orchards in 2001 and 2002, the SBFS warning system saved one to six (mean 2.6) and two to seven (mean 3.1) sprays per season, respectively. Incidence of SBFS in IPM plots did not differ significantly from trees managed with cooperating growers' conventional fungicide schedules in 16 of 28 siteyears. The on-site warning system was more consistently successful in Illinois and Iowa than it was in Wisconsin in both replicated experiments and in cooperating commercial orchards. The reduced-risk fungicides kresoximmethyl and trifloxystrobin provided control of SBFS equal to conventional fungicides (benomyl or thiophanatemethyl) in all trials. Potassium bicarbonate controlled SBFS less effectively than either conventional fungicides on a calendar-based or disease-warning schedule, or treatments incorporating reduced-risk fungicides.
Resistance to blighting by Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (Reade) Honey was evaluated under greenhouse conditions in multiple populations of the diploid species Vaccinium boreale Hall & Aalders, V. corymbosum L., V. darrowi Camp, V. elliottii Chapm., V. myrtilloides Michx., V. myrtillus L., V. pallidum Ait., and V. tenellum Ait., as well as in accessions of the polyploid species 4x V. hirsutum Buckley and 6x V. corymbosum f. amoenum Aiton. Significant species differences were found in mean blighting levels averaged over 2 years, with values ranging from 3.5% for V. boreale to 49.2% for 2x V. corymbosum, compared with 27.5% for the resistant 4x V. corymbosum check, `Bluejay', and 64.3% for the susceptible 4x V. corymbosum check, `Blueray'. Wild Vaccinium species may serve as new sources of resistance to blighting, if resistance can be transferred easily and horticultural type recovered.
Fourteen new zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) germplasm lines from parental crosses including Z. japonica (Steud.), Z. matrella (L.) Merr., and Z. pacifica (Goudswaard) were evaluated for susceptibility to large patch caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn anastomosis group (AG) 2-2 LP. The germplasm lines were compared with ‘Meyer’ (Zoysia japonica Steud.), the most widely used cultivar in the transition zone of the United States, under growth chamber and field conditions. Large patch susceptibility in the growth chamber study was estimated five days post-inoculation and thereafter for 25 days. Three pots of each line and ‘Meyer’ were randomly selected and rated for disease incidence by determining the percentage of individual shoots in each pot with distinct, water-soaked brown lesions on the leaf sheath. Field assessment of large patch susceptibility was carried out weekly and was by direct measurement of patch sizes as well as by digital image analysis of plots for the percentage of diseased turf. All 14 progeny had similar disease levels compared with ‘Meyer’ in the growth chamber, but only six consistently had disease levels as low as ‘Meyer’ in the field. Growth chamber results did not correlate to field results.
significance of Si in plants. Si increases plant resistance to fungal diseases by either increasing the Si content in epidermal tissue, thus forming a thickened Si–cellulose layer that is more resistant to fungal penetration, or by pathogenesis-mediated host
ANTHRACNOSE DISEASE Anthracnose, incited by the species Colletotrichum acutatum , is one of the major fungal diseases of strawberry affecting all parts of the plant during nursery and production stages ( Maas, 1998 ). Additional species of