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Ellen Thompson, Bernadine C. Strik, John R. Clark, and Chad E. Finn

). Table 1. The effect of soft-tipping primocanes on the flowering and fruiting pattern of primocanes of ‘Prime-Jan’ and ‘Prime-Jim’ in 2005 (n = 3) and 2006 (n = 6) (mean ± se ). Soft-tipped canes developed multiple lateral branches just below

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Charles E. Johnson, Alfred F. Trappey II, and Kristi Whitley

The common fig is a popular backyard fruit tree and grown in small orchards throughout the coastal regions of the southeastern U.S. Two commonly grown cultivars in coastal areas have distinct fruiting patterns which would be of interest to processors and marketers of summertime fruit. A study was conducted over a 5-year period to determine the fruiting characteristics of `Celeste' and `LSU Purple' figs. The 9-year-old orchard used for the study is located in St. Gabriel, LA. Annual results over a 5-year period indicated a longer and more productive fruit-bearing season for `LSU Purple' than `Celeste'. The fruit-bearing cycle for `LSU Purple' is about 4 weeks longer than is for `Celeste'. `Celeste' and `LSU Purple' exhibited different fruiting patterns over a 5-year period. `Celeste' consistently produced ripe fruit about one week before `LSU Purple' over the 5-year period. `Celeste' produced 85% of its total yield in a 2-week period with one main crop per year. However, `LSU Purple' produced two and sometimes three distinct crops each year. `LSU Purple' produced a greater total yield compared to `Celeste' with 6.45 kg/tree compared to 4.57 kg for `Celeste' during the 5-year evaluation. Additionally, `LSU Purple' retained foliage longer each year than `Celeste'; a characteristic perhaps due to a higher level of resistance to fig leaf rust. In areas where `LSU Purple' is adapted, this selection of fig may offer a more productive alternative to traditional cultivars planted.

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Lurline Marsh, Rufus Jones, and Mark Ellersieck

Growth and fruiting pattern of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) cv. Clemson Spineless as affected by the growth regulators Alar (N -dimethylaminosuccinamic acid) and ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphoric acid) were evaluated in field studies. Eight treatments consisting of Alar at 600, 1200, 2400, and 3600 μl·liter-1 and ethephon at 200, 400, 600, and 800 μl·liter-1 and water control were applied as foliar sprays at the three- to four-true-leaf stage. Both growth regulators depressed shoot growth and leaf production. Ethephon reduced shoot length. Total fruit yield was not significantly affected by the treatments. However, ethephon-treated plants tended to produce fewer fruits and lagged behind Alar-treated plants and the control plants in Fruit production during the early harvests.

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Daniel S. Kirschbaum, Kirk D. Larson, Steven A. Weinbaum, and Theodore M. DeJong

The pattern of total nonstructural carbohydrate [starch and soluble sugars (TNC)] accumulation in strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) nursery runner plants, cv. Camarosa, was determined for three growing seasons. A similar study was conducted on `Selva', but for only one year. Growth, development and fruit production patterns of plants transplanted to growth chambers (GC) or fruiting fields were also evaluated. The experiments were carried out on plants propagated in high latitude (41°50' N) nurseries in California (Siskiyou County). Plants were sampled beginning late summer through early autumn and analyzed for dry mass (DM) and TNC. Plants from different digging dates were established in GC or fruit evaluation plots in Irvine, Calif. (33°39'N). Initial TNC concentration in storage tissues at the time of nursery digging increased steadily from the second week of September to the third week of October. Crown and root TNC concentration and content were correlated positively with the accumulation of chilling units (CU = hours ≤7.2 °C) in the nursery. Root TNC concentration consistently increased from 6% to 10% DM in `Camarosa' (a short-day cultivar), and from ∼4% to 14% DM in `Selva' (a day-neutral cultivar) from mid-September to the first week of October. The root TNC content increased ∼2.5 times in `Camarosa' and ∼3.7 times in `Selva' during the same period. Transplant growth, development, and fruiting pattern were affected by digging date. Root TNC concentration and content were more sensitive to CU accumulation than crown TNC concentration and content. Therefore, root sampling appeared to be more appropriate than crown sampling for assessing the carbohydrate status and optimal digging dates of strawberry nursery runner plants early in the fall.

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M.M. Gaye, G.W. Eaton, and P.A. Joliffe

The effects of rowcovers and plant architecture on fruit development and spatial distribution were assessed in a study of field-grown bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Ace Hybrid). A forced regression procedure indicated that rowcovers advanced anthesis and delayed harvest dates on the lower nodes and increased the duration of maturation (over all branches and nodes). Rowcovers did not influence total fruit yield. Fruit were obtained from as many as nine node locations, but the largest portion of the total yield was obtained from the first five nodes. Fruit frequency declined with later nodes and lateral branches, compared with the main branch. Fruit produced after lateral branch four on uncovered plants were below an acceptable market size. Marketable fruit were obtained from all nodes, with the exception of node six of covered plants.

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Brian A. Kahn and Mark E. Payton

Eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) were grown from transplants in a field study at Bixby, Okla., in 2005. Plants were harvested twice a week for 7 weeks. Data were taken from 3 individual plants per plot × 11 cultivars × 3 replications. The open-pollinated `Black Beauty' was inferior to the hybrids for yield and fruit quality. Patterns of cumulative percent marketable fruit number did not differ for 3 of the 4 cultivars producing the numerically highest (not always statistically highest) marketable fruit weights per plant (`Classic', `Nadia', and `Santana'). `Dusky' was the exception; fruit number peaked relatively early, but it still totaled among the highest for marketable fruit weight per plant. This might be considered an efficient fruiting pattern. Apart from `Dusky', a relatively high cumulative percent marketable fruit number throughout the season tended to be associated with an intermediate to low marketable fruit weight per plant. Two factors usually were responsible for this pattern: relatively low average marketable fruit weight, or high cull production. Despite significant differences in individual marketable fruiting patterns and average fruit weights, one relatively simple curvilinear model gave an excellent estimation of total and marketable eggplant fruit production (respectively) over time. The model was pct = 1/(1+exp(-(a+b*day))), where pct = estimated cumulative percent based on number of fruit, a = intercept, and b = slope.

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Kitren G. Weis and Barbara D. Webster

The drought-adapted, disease-resistant tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray. var. acutifolius) is of great value as a potential gene donor of useful traits to the common bean (P. vulgaris L.). Analyses of flowering and fruiting patterns of tepary indicate that anthesis and abscission of reproductive structures within a raceme follow well-defined spatial and temporal patterns. Flowering occurs acropetally, and the probability of flowering decreases with distance from the most basal bud of the raceme. The probability of bud or pod abortion increases with distance from the basal bud, and the rate of abortion is highest in buds and pods proximal to the apex. Buds that never reach anthesis abort in the green-bud stage of development and aborting fruits cease development within the first 25% increase in pod length. In nonaborting fruits, the rate of seed abortion is 6%. A marked increase in abscission of all buds and fruits at all raceme nodes occurs before cessation of flowering.

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Suzanne C. Stapleton, Craig K. Chandler, James F. Price, Daniel E. Legard, and James C. Sumler Jr.

The use of locally grown transplants in Florida strawberry (Fragari×ananassa Duchesne) production has increased since the release of the cultivar Sweet Charlie by the University of Florida in 1992. Previous research has shown that nursery region can influence production patterns of other strawberry cultivars through differences in photoperiod and temperature exposure. Transplants of `Sweet Charlie' strawberry (bareroot and plug plants) from sources representing northern (Canada, Massachusetts, Oregon), southern (Alabama, Florida) and mid latitude (North Carolina) transplant production regions were compared for plant vigor, production, and pest incidence at Dover, Fla. in 1995-96 and 1996-97. Total fruit production was not significantly different forplants among the plant source regions in 1995-96, but total yield from southern source plants in 1996-97 was significantly lower than northern and mid latitude plant sources. Monthly production of marketable fruits varied among the three plant source regions in December, January, and February, during which time market prices fell 46% in 1995-96 and 56% in 1996-97. Plants from northern and mid latitude sources produced significantly greater fruit yield in December than plants from southern sources. Differences among plant sources were detected for early flowering, initial crown size, incidence of foliar disease, arthropod pests, mortality, and fruit weight. Geographic location of strawberry transplant sources influenced fruiting patterns and other components that may affect profitability of `Sweet Charlie' strawberry production in west central Florida.

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Nobuko Sugimoto and Randy Beaudry

The objective of the experiment was to determine developmental changes in major aroma profiles in `Jonagold' apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) and analyze climacteric fruit characteristics. Changes in internal ethylene production, respiration, skin color, texture, and aroma concentration were measured during maturation and ripening of `Jonagold' apple fruit. Patterns for skin color, starch, and internal ethylene content were typical for the variety. Volatile compounds and CO2 increased after a rapid increase in ethylene production. Total ester emission peak coincided with fruit softening. Hexyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, butyl acetate, and hexyl 2-methylbutanoate were found to be the major volatile compounds detected by GC/MS. Long chain esters, such as hexyl acetate and butyl acetate, contributed during the early stages of ripening and short chain esters such as n-propyl acetate and butyl propanoate increased later. Esters are formed by combining alcohol moiety with CoA derivative of fatty acid moiety by the action of alcohol acyl transferase (AAT). The alcohols butanol, 2-methylbutanol, propanol, and hexanol increased at an earlier developmental stage than the esters for which they acted as substrates.

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Anita Solar, Robert Veberic, and Franci Stampar

continental climatic conditions. It has good and regular crop, owing to an intermediate fruiting pattern and good balance between vegetative growth and fruiting. As the homogamous cultivar, ‘Krka’ is suited for home gardens as a solitary tree that forms a