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M.E. Arena, G. Vater, and P. Peri

The aim of this work was to study the phenology and fruiting characteristics of B. buxifolia Lam. at Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. One-year-old shoots had significantly more and heavier fruit than older ones. The orientation, height position, and age of shoots significantly affected the shrub productivity. The highest relative number of fruiting shoots, fruit number and fruit weight were found on the northern side of shrub, followed by eastern, western and southern orientations. The relative number of fruiting shoots, fruit number and fruit weight were higher in the upper half of the plant. One-year-old fruiting shoots were significantly higher than 2- and 3-year-old shoots. Likewise, the relative fruit number and fruit weight were significantly higher on 1-year-old than older shoots.

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Yu-Chun Chu and Jer-Chia Chang

Pitaya, or dragon fruit ( Hylocereus spp.), is a climbing cactus native to South and Central America that grows in the shade of canopy trees ( Mizrahi et al., 1997 ). It is an emerging commercial fruit crop grown worldwide, particularly in Vietnam

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Takashi Nishizawa and Yoshihiro Shishido

June-bearing strawberry plants (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch. `Morioka 16') were forced in a greenhouse and either allowed to fruit or deflowered continuously. Plants were harvested at the start of the experiment (day 0), at full bloom (day 35), during rapid growth of green fruit (day 53), at first fruit coloring (day 63), at full coloring of the primary and some secondary fruit in the primary and secondary inflorescences (day 68), and at overripe of many primary and secondary fruit in the primary and secondary inflorescences (day 81). Dry matter accumulation in the vegetative organs in fruiting plants was less than that in deflowered plants as the fruit matured, but the total plant dry mass did not differ significantly between treatments throughout the forcing period. Reducing sugar and sucrose concentrations in roots, crown, and old leaves decreased continuously until day 68, particularly in roots. The concentrations did not differ between treatments. Starch concentrations in roots declined rapidly in both treatments between day 0 and day 35, and then the decline slowed. Starch level was significantly lower in the roots of fruiting plants from day 35 through fruit harvest. These results suggest that carbohydrate reserves in roots of forced June-bearing strawberry plants are used primarily to support the growth of inflorescences and developing leaves. They are less available for fruit growth and maturation since the levels are already relatively low by this stage.

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Shengrui Yao

—sour jujube ( Ziziphus spinosa ). During ancient times in China, people selected plants with large, good tasting fruit from sour jujubes and brought them home to plant ( Qu, 1963 ). Later, most jujube cultivars were selected through seedling selection or

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Pierre-Éric Lauri and Jean-Marie Lespinasse

Growing shoots of two apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] genotypes differing in shoot architecture, the preselection X.3318 and the cultivar `Chantecler', were bent on three dates during the summer and one in the winter to evaluate the interactive effects of shoot architecture and bending date on lateral shoot development and growth over 3 years. Bending X.3318, with a high proportion of vegetative lateral shoots on 1-year-old wood, on different dates did not change the percentage of lateral budbreak (62% to 65%). However, bending in June or July increased lateral growth on 1- and 2-year-old wood in a mesotonic position, whereas bending in winter reduced lateral growth and redistributed the shoots more basitonically. Both number and weight of fruits were reduced by bending. In `Chantecler', which forms many flower buds on 1-year-old wood, bending during flower bud formation (June-July) increased the percentage of lateral budbreak (60% vs. 45% for the control) and the number of flower buds. After 3 years of development, early summer treatments reduced the abortion of laterals as compared to the control. As a consequence, bending increased the number, as well as the weight of fruit. These results show that the effects of bending on the development and growth patterns of lateral shoots vary with genotype.

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Manoj G. Kulkarni, Glendon D. Ascough, and Johannes Van Staden

on growth, fruit yield, and nutritional composition of tomato has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of smoke-water and smoke-isolated butenolide treatments on yield and quality of tomatoes

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Hazel Y. Wetzstein and Amnon Levi.

Fruit Crops

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Curt R. Rom, R. Andy Allen, and Bryan Blackburn

Fruit Crops

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Marvin Pritts

Primocane-fruiting raspberries ( Rubus idaeus L.) produce new canes (primocanes) from buds on the roots or from basal buds on older canes or the crown. Flowers are initiated on these primocanes regardless of daylength and when field-grown can