All available cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultigens were tested for combining ability for fruit storage ability by crossing them with the gynoecious inbred Gy 14. Fruit weight and firmness were measured before and after storage, and fruits were rated for water loss after storage. The cultigens with the lowest percentage of fruit weight loss during storage were PI 172839, PI 344067, PI 264667, PI 171612, PI 339245, PI 220171, PI 279469, and PI 368550; those with the lowest percentage of loss in fruit firmness were PI 379284, PI 339241, PI 414159, PI 422177, `Regal', PI 109483, `Addis', PI 285603, PI 257486, and `Calypso'. The cultigens demonstrating the least fruit shriveling were `Dasher II', `Sprint 440', `Texas Long', PI 390255, PI 432870, `Pacer', PI 419078, PI 390247, PI 321011, and PI 414158. The 10 best cultigens from the initial screening study, along with the four worst cultigens and six checks, were retested directly (not as F1 progeny) for fruit keeping ability in two storage conditions and at two harvest dates. No significant differences were detected between the two harvest dates and storage conditions.
Todd C. Wehner, Nischit V. Shetty, and L. George Wilson
J.P. Mattheis and D.A. Buchanan
Apple fruit storage lie is prolonged by low-oxygen cold storage, however, ethanol accumulates when oxygen concentration is reduced below the Pasteur point, Upon return to aerobic conditions, dissipation of ethanol occurs due to physical (evaporation) and biochemical processes. Oxidation of ethanol by apple fruit occurs at a slow rate, but ethanol also serves es a substrate for fruit volatile synthesis. This study was conducted to determine changes in concentrations of ethanol and other non-ethylene apple fruit volatiles following periods of anaerobiosis. `Delicious' apples were obtained from a commercial warehouse and stored at 0.05% O2, 0.2% CO2 and 1 C. One day following return to ambient oxygen conditions, several volatiles were identified from anaerobic fruit that were nor produced by the control fruit. All were eaters that contained an ethyl group as the alcohol-derived portion, These included ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl 2-methyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate and ethyl octanoate. Several esters produced by the controls were not detectable from anaerobic fruit including butyl butyrate, butyl 2-methyl butyrate, propyl hexanoate and 3-methyl butyl hexanoate. After 7 days ripening at 20 C, the amount of ethanol and the additional ethylesters was reduced in anaerobic fruit. Synthesis of esters produced by control fruit but nor by anaerobic fruit during the initial volatile sampling had resumed after 7 days.
Paul Randall, Peter Sholberg, Gary Judd, and Joan Cossentine
. Beaudry, R. 2006 Depletion of 1-MCP by ‘non-target’ materials from fruit storage faculties Postharvest Biol. Technol. 40 177 182 Waelti, H. 1992 Should we use plastic bins? Tree Fruit Postharvest Journal 3 14 17 18 June 2007. < http
Chia-Hui Tang, Ching-Shan Kuan, Su-Feng Roan, Chin-Lung Lee, Jer-Way Chang, and Iou-Zen Chen
The fruit quality of most pineapple cultivars in Taiwan is not satisfactory during hot summers. Herein, we describe the results of selective breeding in a TARI pineapple breeding orchard. A regional trials program was launched in 2008 for evaluation of superior pineapple lines and varieties, with a focus on developing a shorter plant and improving fruit quality in summer. In 2018, a new cultivar was obtained, released as Tainung No. 23; it was selected from a hybridization population and successive field trials. This cultivar demonstrated improved fruit quality in summer and a shorter plant, with increased suitability for mechanized management.
Randolph Beaudry, Philip Schwallir, and Marian Lennington
Due to the the extremely high level of competition in the marketplace for stored apple fruit, the need for quality maintenance during storage is critical. Quality analysis of fruit at harvest supports the contention that there is a harvest period during which fruit picked for long-term controlled-atmosphere storage maximize grower returns. The apple maturity program used in Michigan for determining this optimal harvest period-or window -incorporates a bloom date-based prediction and fruit maturity analyses. Techniques used in collecting and disseminating maturity information and its interpretation are discussed.
Susan Lurie, Joshua D. Klein, and Ruth Ben Arie
A prestorage heat treatment of 38C for 4 days applied to `Granny Smith' apples (Malus domestics Borkh.) before regular air storage at 0C inhibited the development of superficial scald. Heat-treated apples stored for 3 months had superficial scald levels similar to diphenylamine (DPA)-dipped apples, while all nontreated control apples had scald. After 5 or 6 months of storage, this inhibition of scald development by prestorage heat treatment declined. The prestorage heat treatment inhibited the accumulation of α-farnesene and conjugated trienes in apple cuticle during storage, while DPA inhibited only α-farnesene oxidation. This treatment may be a substitute for chemical treatments against scald not only for short-term storage of `Granny Smith' but possibly also for other scald-susceptible apple cultivars.
Carol A. Miles and Jaqueline King
In this 2-year study of ‘Brown Snout’ specialty cider apple (Malus ×domestica) grafted onto Malling 27 (M.27) and East Malling/Long Ashton 9, we compared weight of total harvested fruit, labor hours for harvest, tree and fruit damage, and fruit and juice quality characteristics for machine and hand harvest. Machine harvest was with an over-the-row small fruit harvester. There were no significant differences due to rootstock; however, there were differences between years for most measurements. Weight of harvested fruit did not differ because of harvest method; however, harvest efficiency was 68% to 72% for machine pick and 85% to 89% for machine pick + clean-up weight (fruit left on trees and fruit knocked to the ground during harvest) as compared with hand harvest. On average for the 2 years, hand harvest required 23 labor-hours per acre at a total cost of $417, while machine harvest required 5 labor-hours per acre at a cost of $93. There were no differences due to harvest method on damage to spurs (four to eight spurs damaged per tree) or limbs (0.5–0.8 limbs damaged per tree). Although there were also no differences due to harvest method on fruit bruising (100% for both harvest methods in this study), 10% of fruit were sliced and 4% of fruit were cut in half inadvertently with machine harvest, and none were sliced or cut with hand harvest. Harvest method had no effect on fruit quality characteristics, specifically, soluble solids concentration (SSC), pH, specific gravity, titratable acidity (malic acid equivalents), or percent total tannin, when fruit was pressed immediately after harvest or stored for 2, 3, or 4 weeks before pressing. Juice quality characteristics were affected by storage, and SSC increased 11% in 2011 (3 weeks storage), and 12% and 18% in 2012 (2 and 4 weeks storage, respectively). Similarly, specific gravity increased both years after storage, 1% in 2011, and 1% and 2% in 2012 (a 1% increase in juice specific gravity corresponds to a potential 1.3% increase in alcohol by volume after fermentation for cider). Both years, juice pH tended to decline when fruit was stored (0.01 pH units in 2011, 0.06–0.12 pH units in 2012). Overall, cider apple harvest with an over-the-row small fruit machine harvester used four times less labor than hand harvest, yield reached 87% that of hand harvest (when clean-up yield was included), and juice quality characteristics were not negatively affected. These results suggest that machine harvest may be suitable for cider apples if equipment is available and affordable.
Brianna L. Ewing, Gregory M. Peck, Sihui Ma, Andrew P. Neilson, and Amanda C. Stewart
affects polyphenols that are important for the sensory quality of ciders remains unknown. Effects of fruit storage duration and temperature on polyphenol chemistry of cider apples, juice, and cider are also unknown. Studies on polyphenols in cold
Ibrahim I. Tahir, Sven-Erik Svensson, and David Hansson
quality and storability. Fruit storage potential was estimated according to the changes in different quality parameters and the occurrence of fungal and physiological disorders during storage and shelf life. The incidence of physiological disorders (soft
Charles F. Forney
objectives of this study were to determine the relationship among storage temperature, RH, and cranberry fruit storage life and assess the chilling sensitivity of cranberry fruit. Materials and Methods Fruit. Storage experiments were conducted