Powdery mildew (PM) occurs worldwide and is prevalent on susceptible cultivars wherever pears are grown, causing economic losses due to russeted fruit and an increased need for fungicides. A core subset of the Pyrus germplasm collection at the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corvallis, Ore., was evaluated for resistance to Podosphaera leucotricha, the causal agent of PM, using greenhouse and field inoculations of potted trees. The core collection consists of about 200 cultivars and species selections, representing most of the genetic diversity of pears and includes 31 Asian cultivars (ASN), 122 European cultivars (EUR), 9 EUR × ASN hybrids and 46 pear species selections. Three trees of each core accession were grafted on seedling rootstocks. In 2001–02, trees were artificially inoculated in a greenhouse, grown under conditions conducive for PM, and evaluated for symptoms. The same trees were subsequently evaluated for PM symptoms from natural field infections during 2003 and 2004. In the greenhouse, 95% of EUR and 38% of ASN were infected with PM. Average PM incidence (percent of leaves infected) in the greenhouse (8% for ASN and 30% for EUR) was much higher than incidence in the field (2% for ASN and 5% for EUR) during 2003. Symptoms were also more severe in the greenhouse, with 46% of ASN and 83% of EUR with PM symptoms having a mean PM incidence of >10%. In the field, 42% and 22% of EUR and 23% and 13% of ASN were infected with P. leucotricha in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Field infection was very low during both years, with percentage leaves infected in ASN and species selections significantly different from EUR. In the field, 6% of ASN with PM symptoms had a mean PM incidence >10% during both years, while 15% and 2% of EUR accessions with PM symptoms had a mean PM incidence >10% in 2003 and 2004 respectively. These results should be very useful to pear breeding programs to develop improved PM resistant cultivars in the future, by using accessions with consistent low PM ratings.
Maryna Serdani, Robert A. Spotts, Jill M. Calabro, Joseph D. Postman, and Annie P. Qu
Dominique-André Demers, Martine Dorais, and Athanasios P. Papadopoulos
. Ehret et al. (1993) observed that increasing the leaf-to-fruit ratio (reduced number of fruit on plants) increased the incidence and severity of fruit russeting in tomato. Bakker (1988) and Ehret et al. (1993) observed that the incidence of
Discussion Fruit russeting. In 2007, fruit russeting in the section of orchard used for this study was insufficient to establish treatment differences (data not shown). Because russeting across the region was less, this effect was likely related to climate
Chun-hui Shi, Xiao-qing Wang, Xue-ying Zhang, Lian-ying Shen, Jun Luo, and Yu-xing Zhang
. Therefore, reducing fruit russeting is a top priority among producers. The suberification process is closely related to lignin and phenolic concentrations ( Bernards, 2002 ; Graça and Santos, 2007), and it has been reported that lignin, cellulose, and
Steven McArtney, J.D. Obermiller, and A. Green
of P-Ca sprays for reducing shoot growth or gibberellin sprays for reducing fruit russet or cracking may be reduced if both materials are applied (Apogee; BASF Corp., Research Triangle Park, N.C.). Miller (1998) reported that concentrations of P
Moritz Knoche and Eckhard Grimm
also induced microcracking of the apple fruit CM, which, in turn, is followed by formation of a periderm that becomes visible as fruit russeting ( Faust and Shear, 1972a ). The objective of this study was to establish the effect of surface moisture, i
Esmaeil Fallahi, S. Krishna Mohan, and Brenda R. Simons
Effects of several growth regulators and mineral nutrient sprays on `Rome Beauty' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) russetting under climatic conditions of southwest Idaho were studied in the 1990 and 1991 growing seasons. Zinc (Zn-50), Calcium as a 12% liquid nutrient (Stopit-6), and fungicide (Polyram) sprays slightly increased, while GA (Provide) decreased fruit russetting.
In 1991, GA and repeated Semperfresh (sucrose ester, carboxymethyl cellulose and mono and diglycerides) applications reduced russetting while Bayleton application increased russetting. Russetting varied from year to year. In 1991, a season of severe fruit russetting, trees which received a fungicide treatment for powdery mildew had generally higher incidence of fruit russetting regardless of treatments. It is believed that interaction between relative humidity, temperature, and systemic sprays used for powdery mildew control contribute to `Rome Beauty' russetting.
Esmaeil Fallahi, Michael J. Kiester, Bahar Fallahi, and Shahla Mahdavi
, SDP is scaled from 1 (least fruit SDP, progressively to 6 = most SDP or starch hydrolysis). Percentages of fruit russet, water core, and sunburn at harvest were calculated by counting the total number of fruit with each of these incidences, divided by
J.R. Schupp, H.A. Schupp, and M.H. Bates
A study was conducted in 1992 at Highmoor Farm, Monmouth, ME to test the effects of fish hydrolysate fertilizer on fruit set, fruit size and fruit quality of apple. Mature, semi-dwarf `Delicious' and `Golden Delicious' trees received 2.76g/1 N, supplied by either fish hydrolysate fertilizer or urea, or received no fertilizer (control). Fertilizers were applied via three foliar sprays applied at seven day intervals, beginning at petal fall. Fish hydralysate fertilizer reduced fruit set of `Delicious' and `Golden Delicious'. Foliar urea increased fruit set and yield of 'Golden Delicious'. Neither fertilizer affected mineral nutrient concentrations of leaves collected in July. Fish hydrolysate increased fruit russeting on both cultivars. Fish hydrolysate is not recommended as a foliar fertilizer for apples.
A. Talaie and J. Mojtahed
Skin russet in apple fruit, which causes a considerable decrease in marketing and exporting potentials, is one of the major problems in the word fruit markets. In this project, the effect of GA4+7, GA3, and dimethoate on russeting of `Golden Delicious' apple was examined. A complete randomized-block design with 13 treatments and four replications was used. In all treatments, the trees had the same size and medium growth and were homogeneous. The distances between trees were 6 x 6 m and the age was 18 years. The total number of trees, including controls, was 52. The 12 treatments were GA4+7 and GA3 with 10 ppm and 20 ppm concentrations in one and two times of spray in petal fall (PF) and PF + 10 days. Dimethoate at a concentration of 0.03% and 0.05% in one and two times of spray in PF and PF + 10 days. Fruit russeting was reduced in all treatments except with GA3. The largest decrease of russeting was caused by GA4+7, especially with 20 ppm and also dimethoate with a significant decrease in russeting. Seed number also decreased significantly with GA4+7 and GA3, but dimethoate had no significant effect on TSS, while ACD ratio was decreased significantly by GA4+7 and dimethoate, but GA3 had no significant effect. Compared with the control, the treatment did not show differences with the other characteristics.