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Nischit V. Shetty and Todd C. Wehner

In many cases, measurement of cucumber fruit weight in small research plots involves more labor and resources than just counting the number of fruit per plot. Therefore, plant breeders are interested in an efficient method for estimating fruit weight per grade (early, marketable, and cull) based on fruit number and total fruit weight. We evaluated the cucumber germplasm collection of 810 plant introduction accessions (supplied by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Regional Plant Introduction Station at Ames, Iowa) along with seven check cultivars for yield. Correlations were calculated for all pairs of fruit number and fruit weight combinations for each grade. In general, the lowest correlations were observed between the fruit weight of each grade (early, marketable, and cull) and total fruit weight or number per plot. High correlations were observed for fruit weight and fruit number within each grade (early, marketable, and cull). An efficient method for estimating fruit weight per hectare of early, marketable, and cull grades is to count total, early, and cull fruit, then measure total fruit weight. Our results showed that the fruit weight of each grade (early, marketable, and cull) was best estimated using the fruit number of that grade (early, marketable, and cull) along with the total fruit weight and total fruit number.

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Jayson K. Harper and George M. Greene II

This study quantifies the discounts and premiums associated with various quality factors for processing apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Discounts and premiums were estimated using a hedonic price model and quality data from a total of 137 samples representing three processing apple cultivars (45 `York Imperial', 43 `Rome Beauty', and 49 `Golden Delicious'). Price discounts in the sample were statistically significant for fruit size, bruising, bitter pit, decay, misshapen apples, and internal breakdown. Commonly cited defects, such as insect damage and apple scab, did not cause significant price discounts.

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Uttam K. Saha, Athanasios P. Papadopoulos, Xiuming Hao, and Shalin Khosla

at the 5% level of significance. Fruit grade distribution. Early in the season (69 to 143 DAP; 21 harvests), the irrigation strategies had significant effects on both number and weight of large ( Fig. 5 ) and commercial (data not shown

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Xiuming Hao, Guang Wen, Athanasios P. Papadopoulos, and Shalin Khosla

total and marketable fruit weight ( Tables 4 and 5 ), which indicated that they had similar biological yield potential. However, they had significant difference on fruit number, size, and fruit distribution across different fruit grades ( Tables 4 – 7

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Craig E. Kallsen, Blake Sanden, and Mary Lu Arpaia

weight and fruit numbers, it has been used to increase grower financial returns by increasing fruit grade and value through a reduction in rind creasing in ‘Frost Nucellar’ navel orange ( Goldhamer and Salinas, 2000 ) and by reducing fruit granulation and

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Camille E. Esmel, Bielinski M. Santos, Eric H. Simonne, Jack E. Rechcigl, and Joseph W. Noling

differences, regardless of marketable fruit grade, among preplant S rates from 25 to 200 lb/acre. Based upon this result, adding preplant S to the fertilization programs in sandy soils improves tomato yield and fall within the current recommended application

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Terence L. Robinson, William F. Millier, James A. Throop, Stephen G. Carpenter, and Alan N. Lakso

Mature `Empire' and `Redchief Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) trained to a Y-shaped trellis (Y/M.26) or trained as pyramid-shaped central leaders (CL/M.7) were mechanically harvested with the Cornell trunk recoil-impact shaker during 4 years. With `Empire', fruit removal from the Y/M.26 trees (85% to 90%) was significantly less than from the CL/M.7 trees (95% to 97%). With `Delicious' there were no differences in fruit removal (90% to 95%) between the two tree forms in any year. When the catching pad was on the ground, fruit grade based on damage was only slightly better for the Y/M.26 trees than for the CL/M.7 trees. When the catching pad was raised up near the Y/M.26 canopy, fruit grade was significantly improved for the Y/M.26 trees and was better than the CL/M.7 trees. Fruit grade for both cultivars ranged from 83% to 94% Extra Fancy with 5% to 16% culls for the Y/M.26 trees and from 74% to 88% Extra Fancy and 11% to 21% culls for the CL/M.7 trees. Skin punctures, skin breaks, and number of large and small bruises were lower and the percentage of nondamaged fruit was higher with the Y/M.26 trees when the pads were close to the canopy than when the pads were on the ground. The CL/M.7 trees had higher levels of all types of fruit damage than did the Y/M.26 trees. Damaged fruit from the CL/M.7 trees was mainly from the top half of the tree, while fruit from lower-tier scaffold branches had low levels of damage. Mechanically harvested fruit from the Y/M.26 trees had lower incidences of fruit rot and flesh breakdown after a 6-month storage period than did fruit from the CL/M.7 trees. Stem pulling was high with both systems and averaged 60% for `Delicious' and 30% for `Empire'. The advantage of the single plane Y-trellis system for mechanical harvesting appears to be that the catching pads can be placed close to the fruit, thereby reducing fruit damage.

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Amílcar M.M. Duarte, Amparo García-Luis, Rosa Victoria Molina, Consuelo Monerri, Vicente Navarro, Sergio G. Nebauer, Manuel Sánchez-Perales, and Jose Luis Guardiola

A winter gibberellic acid (GA3) spray consistently reduced flower formation, but had a variable effect on the amount of first-grade fruit in the early harvest of `Clausellina' satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marc.), and in the long term these applications had no significant effect on the value of the crop. Auxin applications increased the amount of first grade-early harvested fruit, and increased crop value as compared to hand-thinned trees. No significant differences in yield or fruit grade could be found among the different auxin applications tried, namely an application of 20 mg·L-1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at flowering, or applications of 25 mg·L-1 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), or 50 mg·L-1 2,4-dicholorophenoxypropionic acid (2,4-DP) at the end of fruitlet abscission. Apart from their effect on size, the auxin applications had only a marginal effect on fruit quality.

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Kevin L. Cook and Leonard M. Pike

An `intermediate leaf' hybrid pickling cucumber (TAMU 884304 X ARK H-19 `little leaf') was direct-seeded at four plant densities (94,570; 48,440; 32,290; 25,375 plants/ha) using four within-row spacings (15, 30, 45, 60cm) at two locations and two seasons. Optimum yield based on marketable fruit number, grade distribution and fruit quality occurred with 94,570 plants/ha. Optimum harvest time depended on location and season. Delayed harvest times were also evaluated. Harvests with fruit >5.1cm in diameter had severely reduced brining quality. Fruit did not enlarge or enlarged slowly to oversize. This resulted in a mixture of fruit ages within the largest marketable fruit grades. It is recommended that `little leaf' lines and their hybrids such as `intermediate leaf' be harvested when fruit 3.8 to 5.1cm in diameter appear and before oversize fruit are produced. Spacing did not significantly effect length/diameter ratio(LDR) but LDR was significantly greater for delayed harvests.

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Craig E. Kallsen

The objective of this experiment was to determine how yield, size, and quality of fruit would respond to mechanical topping and manual pruning of mature `Frost nucellar' navel orange (Citrus sinensis) trees. Mechanically topping trees at 4.3 m (14 ft) or 4.9 m (16 ft) produced annual fruit yields and quality similar to that of untopped trees. Over the 4 years of this experiment, trees that were not manually pruned produced as much or more of the most valuable fruit sizes than either the severe or moderate manual pruning treatments without the associated pruning costs. Manual pruning did not improve fruit grade compared to unpruned trees. A highly significant positive and linear relationship was found between numbers of commercially valuable fruit and the total number of fruit produced annually within the range of 50,000 to 325,000 fruit/ha (20,235 to 131,528 fruit/acre). Manual pruning, which reduced total fruit numbers, reduced the number of commercially valuable fruit predictively according to this relationship.