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R. Karina Gallardo, Diem Nguyen, Vicki McCracken, Chengyan Yue, James Luby, and James R. McFerson

phosphorous deficiency in rice Rev. Agr. Econ. 31 779 792 Blend, J.R. Van Ravenswaay, E.O. 1999 Measuring consumer demand for ecolabeled apples Amer. J. Agr. Econ. 81 1072 1077 Brown, S.K. 2003 Pome fruit breeding: Progress and prospects Acta Hort. 622 19 34

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John R. Clark and Curt R. Rom

Small fruit production in the southern United States has been impacted greatly by fruit breeders this century. This workshop, co-sponsored by the American Pomological Society, includes presentations from individuals who have contributed collectively over 150 years to small fruit and grape breeding. James N. Moore has conducted breeding at the University of Arkansas, developing 30 cultivars. His presentation on brambles outlines achievements and future opportunities for improvement. Arlen Draper has been involved with the development of 61 small fruit cultivars while working with the USDA-ARS with an emphasis on blueberry. His presentation focuses on blueberry breeding and provides insights into the future of new blueberry cultivar developments. Gene Galletta has conducted small fruit breeding at North Carolina State University and USDA-ARS and has been involved with the development of 50 cultivars. His presentation reflects on the history of strawberry breeding in the South and the challenges that lie ahead. Ron Lane has served as a fruit breeder and horticulturist at the University of Georgia Experiment Station at Griffin and his work has emphasized the development of muscadine grape cultivars. The past and future of muscadine and bunch grape breeding is discussed in his paper. Articles from all authors in this workshop will be published in Fruit Varieties Journal in 1997.

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David M. Hunter and Martin F. Gadsby

Mature seedling trees of pear (Pyrus communis and interspecific hybrids), and fruiting trees of peach and nectarine (Prunus persica), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), and pear were relocated during the dormant season using tree spades. During the growing season immediately following, some signs of drought stress were noticed but all trees grew well enough that they could be used as a source of budwood for limited propagation purposes. When drip irrigation was supplied, supplemented by overhead irrigation as required, normal growth and production resumed within two growing seasons of the move. Some tree losses (less than 10% of trees moved) were reported from one site where the soil type was Fox sand with very poor water holding capacity. These tree losses were attributed to an inadequate water supply to the root ball, even though the site was irrigated. Our experience has demonstrated the feasibility of relocating relatively large trees, which can be beneficial for germplasm conservation in a tree fruit breeding program. However, it is probably not economically viable to relocate such trees for commercial production.

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Kate M. Evans, Lisa J. Brutcher, and Bonnie S. Konishi

experimental programs ( Ampatzidis and Vougioukas, 2009 ; Kuti et al., 2004 ), but the wider application to tree fruit breeding programs has not been reported to the best of our knowledge. These techniques for managing tree fruit samples have obvious

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Chengyan Yue, R. Karina Gallardo, Vicki A. McCracken, James Luby, James R. McFerson, Lan Liu, and Amy Iezzoni

in rosaceous fruit breeding programs HortScience 47 771 776 Frey, K.J. 1996 National plant breeding study. I. Human and financial resources devoted to plant breeding research and development in the United States in 1994. Spec. Rpt. 98. Iowa Agr. Home

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David W. Ramming

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Maria C.B. Raseira, Bonifacio H. Nakasu, Alverides M. Santos, Joel F. Fortes, Olinda Maria Martins, Ailton Raseira, and João Bernardi

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James N. Moore

The strategy of plant patenting as a means to generate research funds is gaining increasing interest in fruit breeding programs in public institutions. Patenting can be a positive force in maintaining fruit breeding programs if applied to superior cultivars and supported by well-designed licensing and distribution procedures. To qualify for a plant patent, a cultivar must be distinct, new, and asexually propagated, and cannot be in public use or on sale more than 1 year prior to the application for patent. Plant patents provide protection only for the whole plant as described. In contrast, utility patents can be obtained to provide proprietary rights to individual plant genes, plant characteristics, and plant products. The possible impact of utility patents on future fruit breeding programs is discussed.

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Gina E. Fernandez, James R. Ballington, and Penelope Perkins-Veazie

program. ‘Von’ is named in honor of Mr. Von Harvey Underwood, who worked in the fruit breeding programs at North Carolina State University for over 44 years. Fig. 1. Fruit of ‘Von’ blackberry. Fig. 2. Ripe fruit on plants of ‘Von’. Origin ‘Von’ is an open