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Steven A. Sargent, Adrian D. Berry, Jeffrey G. Williamson, and James W. Olmstead

compared with MH fruit using side–slapper finger harvest technology from that era; they reported that MH fruit were softer than HH fruit, resulting in significantly higher losses and increased decay during storage. Since then, several studies have evaluated

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Sai Xu, Huazhong Lu, and Xiuxiu Sun

Litchi ( Litchi chinensis ) is a subtropical to tropical fruit with an attractive red appearance, great taste, and rich nutritive value that has been highly enjoyed by consumers worldwide for many years ( Ali et al., 2016 ; Gong et al., 2014

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Marco Beyer, Stefanie Peschel, Moritz Knoche, and Manfred Knörgen

We thank W. Meier and E. Sonnenkalb, Aseleben, Germany, for providing fruit samples; H. Rennebaum, E. Grimm, and M. Hinz for technical support and useful discussion; and F.G. Dennis and P.D. Petracek for critical comments on an earlier

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H.N. De Silva, D.S. Tustin, W.M. Cashmore, C.J. Stanley, G. Lupton, and S.J. McArtney

A number of mass—diameter equations were compared for their potential use in indirect measurement of fruit masses of `Royal Gala' apple (Malus ×domestica). The fruit fresh-mass—diameter relationship changed with time during the season, hence no single function fitted the data well. Smooth piecewise functions that assume different relationships for intervening segments of a curve bounded by knots on the x-axis are particularly useful for modeling such data. The curve is said to be smooth because the first derivative of the function is continuous on the interval, including the knots. Two such equations, a three-parameter piecewise power function and a five-parameter spline exponential function, provided good fits to data. For both equations, the estimated mean bias on individual fruit predictions was within 5% of predicted mass over the two validating data sets. As for the precision conditional on no bias, a sample size of 20 fruit gave standard errors within 2.5% of mean predicted mass. These precisions are adequate to meet the industry requirements for monitoring fruit mass through the growing season. There was evidence of a seasonal difference in the estimated bias, but we were unable to confirm that this variation resulted from seasonal differences in fruit shape. Application of these two equations to data from other regions suggested that divergence from the estimated functional form may in fact be greater under increasingly different climatic conditions. Hence, further investigations to identify possible sources of these differences are necessary before the proposed equations can be applied across climatically different regions.

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Roisin McGarry, Jocelyn A. Ozga, and Dennis M. Reinecke

Fruit growth in saskatoons (Amelanchier alnifolia Nutt.), an emerging horticultural crop across the Canadian prairies, results from development of the mesocarp and the endocarp-locular-ovular structure which includes the developing seeds. Contribution of these tissues to fruit size was assessed using transverse sections of ovaries sampled at six developmental stages among large- and small-fruited cultivars. Mesocarp development was similar among the larger-fruited cultivars (Thiessen, Northline, and Smoky); the number of cells increased rapidly through Stage I [162 to 293 growing degree days (GDDs)] of fruit growth, and cell number increase was minimal during Stages II (293 to 577 GDDs) and III (577 to 747 GDDs). In `Regent' fruit (a small-fruited cultivar), the maximal rate of cell division was delayed until Stage II and the mesocarp contained fewer cells than the larger-fruited cultivars at harvest maturity. Mesocarp cell enlargement was similar among all of the cultivars studied where cell expansion was maximal during Stage I and continued at a slower rate during Stages II and III. The area of the endocarp-locular-ovular structure was greatest for `Thiessen' and `Northline', midrange for `Smoky', and smallest for `Regent'. Data suggest that a minimum number of mesocarp cells early in fruit development is required to attain maximal mesocarp size, and that differences in cultivar fruit size are a function of both the mesocarp and the endocarp-locular-ovular structure.

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Max W. Williams

Biennial bearing of apple trees can be overcome either by the use of a blossom chemical thinner or by early application of a postbloom thinner. Carbaryl (Sevin) is a post-bloom fruit-thinning chemical with an effective thinning period of 4 to 5 weeks after bloom. Sevin was compared in 1992 and 1993 with NAA as an early petal-fall spray. Sevin treatments reduced fruit set to one fruit per cluster with no adverse side effects on the foliage. NAA inconsistently reduced fruit set and the remaining fruit were in clusters, The NAA-treated foliage was adversely affected; having small curled leaves. NAA at 10 ppm under-thinned in 1992 and seriously over-thinned in 1993, whereas Sevin treatments were consistent for fruit thinning in both years. Sevin applied at petal-fall or at petal-fall + 7 days effectively reduced fruit set and reduced fruit competition.

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Beth Ann A. Workmaster, Jiwan P. Palta, and Michael Wisniewski

Infrared video thermography was used to study formation of ice in leaves, stems, and fruit of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. `Stevens'). Ice formed on the plant surface at -1 or -2 °C by freezing of a droplet of water containing ice nucleation-active bacteria (Pseudomonas syringae van Hall). Samples were then cooled to a minimum of -8 °C. Observations on the initiation and propagation of ice were recorded. Leaves froze only when ice was present on the abaxial surface. Once initiated, ice propagated to the stem and then readily to other leaves. In both unripe and ripe fruit, ice propagation from the stem to the fruit via the pedicel was not observed. Fruit remained supercooled for up to 1 hour after ice was present in the stem. Fruit could only be nucleated when ice was present at the calyx (distal) end. Red (ripe) berries supercooled to colder temperatures and for longer durations than blush (unripe) berries before an apparent intrinsic nucleation event occurred. These observations provide evidence that leaves are nucleated by ice penetration via stomata. The ability of fruit to supercool appears to be related to the presence of barriers to extrinsic ice propagation at both the pedicel and fruit surface. Stomata at the calyx end of the fruit in the remnant nectary area may provide avenues for extrinsic ice nucleation.

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Carl E. Niedziela Jr., Paul V. Nelson, Daniel H. Willits, and Mary M. Peet

Commercial recommendations exist for using short-term salt-shocks on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) to improve fruit quality. Six experiments were conducted to 1) assess the influence of nutrient concentration and short-term salt-shocks on fruit quality and yield and 2) identify a vegetative predictor of subsequent fruit quality. The first objective was addressed in three nutrient film technique (NFT) experiments (Expts. 1-3). Four treatments were applied: two maintained constant at two baseline concentrations (0.25X and 1X-commercial level) and two provided salt-shock periods of 30 min, twice daily. There were no effects of baseline concentration or salt-shocks on total number and weight of marketable fruit. Fruit quality was better at the 1X baseline concentration as observed by higher titratable acidity (Expt. 2), higher percent dry matter (Expts. 2 and 3), higher soluble solids concentration (Expt. 2), and lower pH (Expts. 2 and 3), however, weight per marketable fruit was lower (Expt. 2). Salt-shocks had little effect on fruit quality, refuting its commercial potential. Salt-shocks decreased fruit pH (Expts. 1 and 3). However, titratable acidity increased at the 0.25X level and decreased at the 1X level (Expt. 3). In Expt. 2, but not in Expt. 3, citrate concentration in the fifth leaf from the apex of young vegetative plants was correlated with subsequent fruit quality. Three additional experiments in static hydroponics with vegetative plants showed no significant differences in leaf citrate levels due to a single, short-term salt-shock. Thus, citrate is not a good predictor of fruit quality.

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Brian A. Kahn and John P. Damicone

kaolin materials have been reported to reduce leaf and fruit tissue temperatures and to improve water use efficiency in some tree fruit crops ( Glenn et al., 2001 , 2002 ; Jifon and Syvertsen, 2003 ). Rao (1985) reported that under nonirrigated