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M. Lenny Wells and Bruce W. Wood

Water-stage fruit-split (WSFS) of pecan is often a major problem exhibited by thin-shelled pecan [ Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars (e.g., ‘Schley’, ‘Oconee’, ‘Sumner’, ‘Wichita’, ‘Frotcher’, and ‘Farley’) and, to a lesser degree

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Triston Hooks, Genhua Niu, Joe Masabni, Youping Sun, and Girisha Ganjegunte

commercial trees planted ( Chater and Garner, 2018 ). However, ‘Wonderful’ pomegranate is susceptible to fruit splitting, which is a major production challenge that can cause significant fruit loss ( Chater and Garner, 2018 ). Fruit split is thought to be

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YanLing Zheng, GaoJuan Zhao, and HuanCheng Ma

), which are collected after the fruit split on the trees. We suspect that light-brown and dark-brown seeds may possess different maturity and thus might show different physiological responses to desiccation and subzero temperatures. In practice, most of

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Bruce W. Wood and Charles C. Reilly

Water stage fruit split (WS) is an erratic and complex problem often causing major crop losses to susceptible pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] cultivars. This study identified two episodes of WS for `Wichita' pecan—a highly susceptible cultivar. The previously recognized precipitation-induced fruit splitting is the major episode; however, a previously unrecognized precipitation-independent, minor episode can also occured before the major episode. This minor episode was associated with the low solar irradiance and high relative humidity—conditions commonly associated with August rains. The crop characteristics of affected trees also influenced WS in that WS increased as crop load per tree increased. Fruits were also more likely to exhibit WS if located within the lower tree canopy. Treatment of foliage with an antitranspirant immediately before split-inducing conditions increased WS. Maintenance of moist soils for ≈2 weeks before WS-inducing conditions substantially reduced WS-related crop losses. These findings help to explain the erratic nature of WS and indicate that maintenance of trees in a well-watered state for ≈2 weeks before the initiation of shell hardening may substantially reduce WS-related crop losses in certain years.

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M. Lenny Wells, D. Scott Carlson, and R. Philip Edwards

et al., 1993 ; Wood, 1986 ). Incidences of fruit disorders such as shuck decline, water-stage fruit split, and vivipary are also reported to be higher when crop load is heavy ( Sparks et al., 1995 ; Wood and Reilly, 1999 ). Premature germination or

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Ockert P.J. Stander, Karen I. Theron, and Paul J.R. Cronjé

). During 2012, from ‘Marisol’ trees treated with 2,4-D and 2,4-D + K and the control, five fruit were picked per tree on 9 Jan. (before visual fruit split initiation), 8 Feb. (start of visual fruit split initiation), 6 Mar. (1 month after visual fruit split

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Donna A. Marshall, James M. Spiers, and Kenneth J. Curry

-susceptible cherries. They concluded that water uptake thresholds at which fruit split was a major factor explaining the split susceptibility difference in cherry cultivars. Lane et al. (2000) added that a cultivar difference causally related to splitting

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temperatures on germination of dark-brown seeds collected from split kapok fruit and light-brown seeds collected approximately 10-15 days earlier than the time of fruit split. Dark-brown seeds showed orthodox storage behavior, and they can be stored at subzero

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Sara Andrea Moran-Duran, Robert Paul Flynn, Richard Heerema, and Dawn VanLeeuwen

role of Ni in higher plants. Further evidence from that study indicated that foliar Ni applications on pecan trees, soon after budbreak, prevent or minimize the incidence of ME. Another disorder related to pecan Ni deficiency is water stage fruit split

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water stage fruit split. Total 2-year crop value for thinned trees was more than two times greater than for unthinned trees. Economic Analysis of Nitrogen Rate on Vine Production and Fruit Yield of Pruned Cranberry Beds Four nitrogen (N) rates and