Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 192 items for :

  • "fruit softening" x
  • All content x
Clear All
Full access

Kang-Di Hu, Xiao-Yue Zhang, Sha-Sha Wang, Jun Tang, Feng Yang, Zhong-Qin Huang, Jing-Yu Deng, Si-Yuan Liu, Shang-Jun Zhao, Lan-Ying Hu, Gai-Fang Yao, and Hua Zhang

consumer acceptability ( Giovannoni, 2007 ; Grierson et al., 1986 ; Musse et al., 2009 ). Fruit softening is a complex process that results from loosening of the cell wall. Many enzymes such as pectinmethylesterase, polygalacturonase, cellulase, and

Free access

Hiroshi Iwanami, Shigeki Moriya, Nobuhiro Kotoda, Sae Takahashi, and Kazuyuki Abe

A major quality problem with apples in the marketplace is fruit softening ( Johnston et al., 2002a ). The degree or rate of softening after harvest depends on the cultivar ( Iwanami et al., 2004 ). Although ‘Fuji’ and ‘Honeycrisp’ maintain their

Free access

Alan B. Bennett

Fruit softening is integral to the ripening process. It is an important component of fruit quality, but also initiates deterioration and is a limiting determinant of shelf-life. Intensive research has attempted to elucidate the biochemical and genetic control of fruit softening with the goal of controlling this process as a means to enhance both fruit quality and shelf-life. Current models of fruit softening focus on cell wall disassembly as the major biochemical event regulating fruit softening. Examination of the sequence of cell wall disassembly in ripening Charentais melon fruit suggested that softening could be divided into two distinct phases. The early stage of fruit softening was associated with the regulated disassembly of xyloglucan polymers and the later softening that accompanies over-ripe deterioration was associated with pectin depolymerization. Characterization of cell wall changes in other fruit, including tomato, suggest that this may represent a general model of sequential cell wall disassembly in ripening fruit. Interestingly, the early events of xyloglucan disassembly were not associated with the activation or expression of xyloclucan hydrolases but were associated with the expression of a ripening-regulated expansin gene. Analysis of transgenic tomato fruit with suppressed expansin gene expression or with suppressed polygalacturonase gene expression supports a general model of sequential disassembly of xyloglucan and pectin that control the early and late phases of fruit softening, respectively.

Free access

Ahmad Sattar Khan and Zora Singh

al., 1991 ); controlled atmosphere storage ( Wang and Vestrheim, 2003 ); and modified atmosphere (MA) storage ( Turk and Ozkurt, 1994 ). However, the available information is inconclusive and sporadic. Fruit softening is an important attribute

Free access

Christopher D. Gussman, Joseph C. Goffreda, and Thomas J. Gianfagna

Ethylene production and fruit softening during postharvest storage of several apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) ripening variants were compared with two standard cultivars. PA14-238 and D101-110 produced only low levels of ethylene (<10 μl·kg–1·hour–1) at harvest and throughout most of 86 days of storage at 4C, whereas `Red Chief Delicious' and `Golden Delicious' fruit produced >100 μl ethylene/kg per hour during the same time period. PA14-238 and D101-110 flesh disks converted aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) but not methionine (MET) to ethylene. `Red Chief Delicious' readily converted both MET and ACC to ethylene at the end of cold storage. PA14-238 fruit were the firmest and did not soften during postharvest storage; however, D101-110 softened appreciably. NJ55 did not produce ethylene at harvest, but produced a significant amount of ethylene (90 μl·kg–1·hour–1) during storage. Despite its high capacity to produce ethylene, NJ55 remained nearly as firm as PA14-238 at the end of cold storage.

Free access

Ting-Ting Li, Zhi-Rong Li, Kang-Di Hu, Lan-Ying Hu, Xiao-Yan Chen, Yan-Hong Li, Ying Yang, Feng Yang, and Hua Zhang

, and cell death ( Kumar et al., 2016 ). Thus, development of new storage protocols for kiwifruit to delay fruit softening as well as to ensure good texture and nutrients is of commercial importance for producers. Ethylene or ethephon (2-chloroethyl

Free access

Hiroshi Iwanami, Shigeki Moriya, Nobuhiro Kotoda, and Kazuyuki Abe

Softening of fruit after harvest is a serious problem in the apple industry, and the mechanisms of softening have been thoroughly investigated. In microscopic studies, as apple fruit softened, the middle lamella degraded, and cells separated when

Free access

Teresa F. Wegrzyn and Elspeth A. MacRae

The activities of several cell wall-associated enzymes of the outer pericarp were assayed during softening of kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson var. deliciosa cv. Hayward] treated with ethylene. The activity of polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) increased slightly during fruit softening, while β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23) activity remained constant. Salt-extracted pectinesterase (EC 3.1.1.11) activity increased during ethylene treatment, then dropped rapidly to low levels as fruit softened. Residual pectinesterase activity, extracted after digestion of the cell wall pellet with a fungal enzyme mix, decreased on softening. The rapid softening of kiwifruit in response to ethylene treatment may be initiated by an induction of pectinesterase activity, causing increased de-esterification of cell wall pectins, followed by degradation of solubilized pectin.

Free access

Ann M. Callahan, Peter H. Morgens, Reuben A. Cohen, Ken E. Nichols Jr., and Ralph Scorza

We are interested in identifying and isolating genes which affect the rate of softening in peach fruit. It may be possible through the engineering of these genes to delay or extend the softening. This could ultimately allow for the harvest and transport of more mature, higher quality fruit. The clone, pch313, was isolated from a ripe peach fruit cDNA library. RNA homologous to this clone is detected at a low abundance in fruit until softening when a >100 fold increase in abundance of the RNA occurs. Pch313 RNA is also detected 30 min after wounding leaf or fruit tissue and peaks in accumulation within 2-8 hours. Wound ethylene was measured from the same tissue and its rate of evolution paralleled the accumulation of the RNA. The cDNA was sequenced and found to have 78% sequence identity with pTom13, a tomato gene that is expressed during fruit ripening and wounding (Holdsworth et al., NAR 15:731-739, 1987). To determine the universality of pch313 related gene expression, RNA accumulation was measured in other fruits during softening, and in leaf tissue upon wounding.

Free access

Ann M. Callahan, Peter H. Morgens, Reuben A. Cohen, Ken E. Nichols Jr., and Ralph Scorza

We are interested in identifying and isolating genes which affect the rate of softening in peach fruit. It may be possible through the engineering of these genes to delay or extend the softening. This could ultimately allow for the harvest and transport of more mature, higher quality fruit. The clone, pch313, was isolated from a ripe peach fruit cDNA library. RNA homologous to this clone is detected at a low abundance in fruit until softening when a >100 fold increase in abundance of the RNA occurs. Pch313 RNA is also detected 30 min after wounding leaf or fruit tissue and peaks in accumulation within 2-8 hours. Wound ethylene was measured from the same tissue and its rate of evolution paralleled the accumulation of the RNA. The cDNA was sequenced and found to have 78% sequence identity with pTom13, a tomato gene that is expressed during fruit ripening and wounding (Holdsworth et al., NAR 15:731-739, 1987). To determine the universality of pch313 related gene expression, RNA accumulation was measured in other fruits during softening, and in leaf tissue upon wounding.