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Bruce D. Whitaker and Gene E. Lester

Increases in phospholipase D [PLD (EC 3.1.4.4)] and lipoxygenase [LOX (EC 1.13.11.12)] activities are thought to play a critical role in senescence of mesocarp tissues in netted and nonnetted muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) fruits. We have cloned and characterized two full-length cDNAs, CmPLDα1 and CmLOX1, encoding PLDα and LOX proteins in honeydew melon (C. melo Inodorus Group cv. Honey Brew). Relative levels of expression of the corresponding genes were determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in developing and mature fruit mesocarp tissues [20-60 d after pollination (DAP)], as well as in roots, leaves, and stems from 4-week-old and flowers from 6- to 7-week-old plants. The coding regions of CmPLDα1 and CmLOX1 cDNAs are, respectively, 2427 and 2634 nucleotides long, encoding proteins 808 and 877 amino acids in length. CmPLDα1 is very similar to PLDα genes from castor bean (Ricinis communis L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.), strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) (77% nucleotide identity), and is the first PLD gene cloned from a cucurbit species. CmLOX1 has 94% nucleotide identity to a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) LOX gene expressed in roots and 80% identity to cucumber cotyledon lipid body LOX. In general, transcript of CmPLDα1 was much more abundant than that of CmLOX1, but relative levels of transcript in the various organs and tissues were similar for the two genes. Expression was highest in roots, flowers, and fruit mesocarp tissues. CmPLDα1 expression in fruit was essentially constitutive throughout development, although maximum levels occurred at 50 and 55 DAP, respectively, in middle and hypodermal mesocarp. CmLOX1 expression was generally higher in middle than in hypodermal mesocarp with maximum transcript levels occurring at 55 and 50 DAP, respectively. Overall, the patterns of expression of CmPLDα1 and CmLOX1 are consistent with a model in which their encoded enzymes act in tandem to promote or accelerate senescence in fruit mesocarp tissues.

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Jingyi Lv, Yonghong Ge, Canying Li, Mengyuan Zhang, and Jianrong Li

the two hormones in regulating fruit ripening and senescence are unclear. In the past few years, studies have mainly focused on the role of JAs on the ethylene pathway during fruit ripening. In climacteric fruit, such as apples ( Kondo et al., 2009

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Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

attributes. Breakdown symptoms are initially visible at the fruit stem end and progress over time in storage toward the fruit equator. The increased fruit area with browning symptoms is consistent with injury resulting from the progression of fruit ripening

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R.S. Mueller, D.P. Murr, and L.J. Skog

1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a gaseous synthetic cyclic hydrocarbon, has been shown to have potential to become an important new tool in controlling the response of plants sensitive to ethylene. Due to its irreversible binding to the ethylene receptor(s) and its subsequent prevention of the physiological action of ethylene for extended periods, 1-MCP may prove also to have effective commercial application in the control of ethylene effects in detached organs such as fruit. Our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of 1-MCP in controlling ripening in pear. Two commercial cultivars (Bosc, Anjou) and one numbered cultivar from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada's breeding program (Harrow 607) were harvested at commercial maturity. Immediately after harvest, fruit were exposed for 24 h at 20 °C to 1-MCP ranging from 0 to 100 μL•L-1 then placed in air at 0 °C and 90% relative humidity for 5 and 10 weeks. Following treatment and after 5 weeks storage plus a 7- or 14-day post-storage ripening period, fruit softening and ethylene evolution were inhibited and fruit volatile evolution was reduced significantly by exposure to 1-MCP at or above 1.0 μL•L-1 in all three cultivars. Concentrations exceeding 1.0 μL•L-1 were required to maintain initial firmness and inhibit ethylene production after 10 weeks storage in air. Evolution of alpha-farnesene and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one was related to low temperature stress and chlorophyll loss as a result of ripening, respectively, and were affected by 1-MCP exposure. The pattern of evolution and amounts of other volatiles was also affected by 1-MCP treatment. These results indicate a huge potential for commercial use and application of 1-MCP in controlling fruit ripening and senescence.

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Ting-Ting Li, Zhi-Rong Li, Kang-Di Hu, Lan-Ying Hu, Xiao-Yan Chen, Yan-Hong Li, Ying Yang, Feng Yang, and Hua Zhang

( Harman and McDonald, 1989 ; Yin et al., 2008 ). Postharvest fruit ripening and senescence result in profound changes in fruit sensory, texture, and nutritional quality because of cell wall degradation, membrane deterioration, cell structure modification

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Kang-Di Hu, Xiao-Yue Zhang, Sha-Sha Wang, Jun Tang, Feng Yang, Zhong-Qin Huang, Jing-Yu Deng, Si-Yuan Liu, Shang-Jun Zhao, Lan-Ying Hu, Gai-Fang Yao, and Hua Zhang

expression, which further affect sensory attributes, flesh texture, fruit nutritional quality, and market acceptance. Fruit ripening and senescence are accompanied by texture softening, which is one of the most important factors regarding fruit quality and

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Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

fruit internal disorders has been linked to storage humidity and temperature ( Weber et al., 2012 ). Fruit ripening and senescence progress during long-term cold storage and subsequent warm temperature shelf life illustrated here in part by increased IEC

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Oscar Andrés Del Angel-Coronel, Juan Guillermo Cruz-Castillo, Javier De La Cruz-Medina, and Franco Famiani

-dependent ( Hadfield et al., 1995 ). However, when the respiratory climacteric occurs with either detached or still attached fruit, it always indicates a turning point in terms of fruit ripening and senescence, and so it is always important to establish when this

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Chao Zhou, Haide Zhang, Yixing Li, Fenfang Li, Jiao Chen, Debao Yuan, and Keqian Hong

( Yun et al., 2019 ). Therefore, knowledge of banana fruit ripening and senescence may assist in developing strategies that can improve the sensorial quality and reduce postharvest fruit losses. Previous studies have investigated the mechanisms involved

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Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

breakdown in cold-stored ‘Royal Gala’ apples have a positive relationship with fruit size ( Lee et al., 2013 ). Disorder development is reduced by 1-MCP treatment before cold storage, indicating that fruit ripening and senescence may be factors influencing