metabolic pathway corresponds to lignin in pear fruit is lacking. Because fruit color is a highly desirable trait in pears, our objective was to examine the mechanism underlying russeting on the fruit peel of the ‘Cuiguan’ variety of sand pear, with the goal
Chun-hui Shi, Xiao-qing Wang, Xue-ying Zhang, Lian-ying Shen, Jun Luo, and Yu-xing Zhang
Ignazio Infantino and Riccardo Lo Bianco*
Peel color is a critical index of external fruit quality and consumer appreciation level. Traditional methods for determination of peel color are based on visual analysis or punctual measurements by colorimeter. In this study we present a method based on digital image analysis that integrates the accuracy of an interactive measurement and the efficacy of an image analysis that descibes entire sides of the fruit. A sample of apple, mandarin, grape, and peach fruit was photographed (each fruit on two opposite sides) with a digital camera for determination of peel color. Digital images were converted from RGB to CIE L*a*b* format, and color characteristics were indexed and quantified. The implemented method uses a reference color image cropped from the best fruit (interactively chosen) to calculate a color index for each fruit of the image set. The final index is the weighted sum of the number of pixels of the fruit, where pixels closer to the reference color (distance in the CIE L*a*b space) are considered more relevant. This color index gives integrated information on fruit color quantity (% of cover color) and quality (hue and saturation). The method represents a rapid and efficient way of determining color of the entire fruit surface and overcomes difficulties and approximation of traditional methods. A modification of the same method can be used to determine peel rugosity (mandarin) and average size and number of grape berries per bunch.
Robert D. Belding, Sylvia M. Blankenship, Eric Young, and Ross B. Leidy
Variation in amount and composition of epicuticular wax among several apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) cultivars was characterized by gas chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Across cultivars, wax mass ranged from 366 to 1038 μg·cm-2. Wax mass decreased during the 30 days before harvest. Ursolic acid accounted for 32% to 70% of the hydrocarbons that make up the epicuticular wax. Alkanes, predominantly 29-carbon nonacosane, comprised 16.6% to 49%. Primary alcohols of the hydrocarbons ranged from 0% to 14.6% of the epicuticular wax. Secondary alcohols of the hydrocarbons were the most cultivar specific, making up 20.4% of the epicuticular wax in `Delicious' and only 1.9% `Golden Delicious' strains. Aldehydes and ketones of the hydrocarbons represented a small amount of total wax, ranging from 0% and 6.0%. Percentage of primary alcohol in the epicuticular wax increased as fruit developed. Other components showed no distinct trends with fruit development. Examination of the ultrastructure of cuticular wax using scanning electron microscopy revealed structural differences among cultivars.
Yiguang Wang, Chao Zhang, Bin Dong, Yaohui Huang, Zhiyi Bao, and Hongbo Zhao
, a substantial accumulation of carotenoids in fruit and petals can result in yellow, orange, and red colors ( Hirschberg, 2001 ; Ohmiya, 2013 ). All of these pigments are present in varying ratios in the fruit peel and exert significant effects on
Olga Dichala, Ioannis Therios, Magdalene Koukourikou-Petridou, and Aristotelis Papadopoulos
Ni (fruit peel, seeds, and leaves), Ca (fruit peel and seeds), and Mg (fruit peel); 3) concentration of total flavonoids and total phenols; and 4) antioxidant capacity of fruit peels. At the termination of the experiment, the pomegranate fruits were
Tara Auxt Baugher, Richard Marini, James R. Schupp, and Christopher B. Watkins
-sectional area); Average SL calculated from 10 representative terminal shoots per tree after terminal bud set; Fruit peel nutrient levels at 3 weeks before harvest (composite sample from 15 randomly selected fruit of similar size per tree); Average fruit weight
Sara Atrash, Asghar Ramezanian, Majid Rahemi, Reza Mostofizadeh Ghalamfarsa, and Elhadi Yahia
. Titratable acidity (TA) was measured by titrating fruit juice against 0.2 n NaOH ( Hassani et al., 2010 ). The concentration of carotenoids and chlorophyll in fruit peel were measured spectrophotometrically and expressed as fresh weight basis. Briefly, 1 g
Richard P. Marini, Tara Auxt Baugher, Megan Muehlbauer, Sherif Sherif, Robert Crassweller, and James R. Schupp
). For each orchard, 20 mature trees with crop loads that were representative of the block were selected; ≈3 weeks before the anticipated harvest, three fruit were randomly sampled at ≈1.7 m aboveground from each tree for fruit peel tissue analysis, as
Renae Moran, Jennifer DeEll, and Cindy B.S. Tong
of disorders with I AD at harvest was determined by regression analysis using the REG and RSREG procedures. Results I AD at harvest. In both years, ‘Honeycrisp’ fruit peel I AD varied among harvest dates and location with a significant interaction
Esmaeil Fallahi, W. Michael Colt, Craig R. Baird, Bahar Fallahi, and Ik-Jo Chun
The influence of three rates of nitrogen (N) and fruit bagging on fruit peel and flesh mineral concentrations and fruit quality in `BC-2 Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees on Malling 9 (M.9) was studied. Increasing N application decreased fruit peel red color, fruit N, iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn). Fruit from trees receiving 10.72 oz (303.9 g) N per year had higher evolved ethylene and respiration during poststorage ripening tests. Bagging of fruit reduced fruit peel red color, soluble solids concentrations (SSC), and dry weight as compared to nonbagged fruit. Bagged fruit had higher N, potassium (K), and copper (Cu) than nonbagged fruit. Fruit peel had a greater percentage of dry weight, and higher concentrations of all tested minerals compared to fruit flesh.