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Lisa Tang, Shweta Chhajed, and Tripti Vashisth

-Cardwell, 2014 ; Iglesias et al., 2007 ). Increased preharvest fruit drop together with tree decline due to C Las infection results in a great reduction in yield and difficulty in field management of HLB-affected groves ( Albrigo and Stover, 2015 ; Bové, 2006

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Takashi Sato, Tsuyoshi Kudo, Tomoko Akada, Yuhya Wakasa, Minoru Niizeki, and Takeo Harada

The onset of apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. Var. domestica (Borkh.)Mansf.] fruit maturity is preceded by the production of ethylene, the ripening hormone, which induces fruit ripening. The amount of ethylene produced by the fruit correlates with the level of transcription of the ripening-specific 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase genes. We have found that an allele (MdACS1-2), which contains an inserted retroposon-like sequence at the 5'-flanking region, is transcribed at a lower level than the wild-type (MdACS1-1). MdACS1-2/2 homozygous fruit produce a lower level of ethylene at the climacteric stage than do the wild type fruit. We have also found that the preharvest drop rates of apple cultivars and strains of MdACS1-2/2 trees have less fruit drop than the MdACS1-1/1 or MdACS1-1/2 trees. Treatment of the MdACS1-1/2 trees with 1-MCP, an ethylene receptor blocker, further decreased fruit drop. Analysis of commercial apple cultivars for the presence of the MdACS1-2/2 allele may help in the early detection of apple cultivars with a low fruit drop rate.

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Michael H. Hagemann, Malte G. Roemer, Julian Kofler, Martin Hegele, and Jens N. Wünsche

The worldwide production of mango ( Mangifera indica L.) is frequently reduced by severe losses of fruit numbers throughout the growing season, a phenomenon that is referred to as premature fruit drop ( Singh et al., 2005 ). Mango produces an

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Leo G. Albrigo and Ed W. Stover

drop of citrus ( Fig. 1 ) has become more severe ( Table 1 ). The USDA (2015) estimated preharvest fruit drop at 18% and 23% of the total crop for early-midseason (E-M) sweet orange cultivars (mainly Hamlin, Midsweet, and Pineapple) and 22% and 31

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Max G. Villalobos-Acuña, William V. Biasi, Sylvia Flores, Elizabeth J. Mitcham, Rachel B. Elkins, and Neil H. Willits

; McArtney et al., 2008 ; Yuan and Carbaugh, 2007 ). In addition to ethylene, auxins play an important role in fruit abscission ( Wertheim, 1973 , 2000 ). The application of exogenous auxins delays the onset of fruit abscission or premature fruit drop in

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Lisa Tang, Sukhdeep Singh, and Tripti Vashisth

poor juice quality ( Baldwin et al., 2010 ; Bové, 2006 ; Johnson et al., 2014 ). Furthermore, HLB increases the incidence of preharvest fruit drop, which refers to the abscission of physiologically mature fruit (at the stage III of fruit development

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Bruce W. Wood, Lenny Wells, and Frank Funderburke

fruit drop may also be an early K deficiency symptom. Commercial pecan nutmeat producers often perceive excessive post-pollination early-season fruit drop as a profit limiting malady when it occurs in “low to moderate” crop-load trees, thus meriting

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Ockert P.J. Stander, Karen I. Theron, and Paul J.R. Cronjé

number of split fruit ( Table 1 ). Table 1. The effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca) applied alone or combined as foliar treatments [10 L (2.6 gal) per tree] at different timings [after physiological fruit drop

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Rongcai Yuan and David H. Carbaugh

Preharvest apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit drop, which occurs before fruit develop optimum red color, maturity, or size, usually causes a serious economic loss. Conversely, picking fruit before adequate maturity may lead to poor

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Rongcai Yuan and Jianguo Li

‘Delicious’ is one of the most important apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivars grown in the United States. Excessive preharvest apple fruit drop, which occurs before fruit develop optimum red color, maturity, or size, is one of its faults