Fruits of 11 cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis L.) genotypes grown in a single location, Rize province, were analyzed for their fruit characteristics. Both physical and chemical characteristics of cherry laurel fruits were significantly influenced by genotypes. Fruit weight, the number of fruits per cluster, and flesh per seed ratio ranged between 1.87 and 4.01 g; 9.21 and 21.05, and 5.54 and 9.33, respectively. The genotypes R06 and R09 had the highest total anthocyanin [205 and 202 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW), respectively] and R06 and R11 had the highest total phenolic contents (503 and 481 mg/100 g FW, respectively). Total carotenoid and vitamin C contents ranged from 207 to 278 mg/100 g FW and 2.1 to 4.1 mg/100 g FW, respectively. Soluble solid content (SSC), crude fiber, crude protein, pectin, ash, and pH of genotypes fell between 9.64% and 17.10%; 0.44% and 0.85%; 1.44% and 2.09%; 0.20% and 0.47%; 0.25% and 0.71%, and 4.30 and 4.93, respectively. Data demonstrated that the great variations observed in the physical and chemical characteristics of individual cherry laurel genotypes might be explained by genotypic effect because all genotypes grew under the same ecological conditions. The investigated genotypes seemed to be perspective in health promotion.
Ferit Celik, Sezai Ercisli, Suzan O. Yilmaz and Attila Hegedus
Avinoam Nerd, Avraham Karady and Yosef Mizrahi
Field experiments were conducted to examine the effect of fertilization and short periods of drought on the out-of-season winter crop in prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.]. In addition, the winter and summer crops were compared regarding floral bud production and fruit characteristics. Under both continuous fertigation (N, P, K applied with the irrigation water) and continuous irrigation, the number of floral buds per plant was much lower in the winter than in the summer crop. Fertilization increased production of floral buds in both crops, but to a greater extent in the winter crop. The increase in floral bud production in fertilized plants was associated with an increase in NO3-N content in the cladodes. Suspension of fertigation for 4 or 8 weeks immediately after the summer harvest decreased cladode water content and delayed and reduced floral bud emergence as compared with continuous fertigation (control) or late drought (4 or 8 weeks) applied 4 weeks after the summer harvest. The plants subjected to early drought suffered from high mortality of floral buds. The fruits of the winter crop ripened in early spring, following the pattern of floral bud emergence the previous autumn. Mean fresh weight and peel: pulp ratio (w/w) were higher in fruits that ripened in the spring (winter crop) than in fruits that ripened in the summer.
Thirty-seven okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) plant introductions and 3 cultivars, `Clemson Spineless', `Clemson Spineless 80', and `Candelabra Branching' were evaluated for their fruiting characteristics during a three year field study. Harvesting at 3 to 4 day intervals produced inmature fruits which were approximately 4 to 7 days old. These immature fruits when graded according to fruit length, were primarily very small (<4.4 cm) or small (4.4-8.9 cm). There were few medium (>8.9 cm but <12.7) or large (>12.7 cm) fruits. Of the 40 genotypes, Clemson Spineless averaged 46 pods per plant over 17 harvests. Few other plant introductions were comparable in the number of pods produced. Except for one, all other genotypes produced predominantly green fruits. Many of the genotypes were early maturing.
Bernadette McKelly, E. G. Rhoden and G.W. Carver
Hot pepper (Capsicum annum) is gaining popularity as a food flavor additive. A study was initiated to determine the fruiting characteristics of two hot pepper cultivars; `Scotch Bonnet' and `Brown Lue'. After evaluating 100 fruits of each cultivar, it was found that `Scotch Bonnet' fruits had 34% more seeds and these seeds weighed 9% more than `Brown Lue'. Although `Brown Lue' had longer fruits (3.89 vs 3.33 cm) than `Scotch Bonnet', this difference was not significant. In addition, `Scotch Bonnet' had greater fruit circumference and circumference to length ratio than `Brown Lue'. When fruits were compared for fresh and dried weights, there was no significant difference. However, `Brown Lue' had a significantly higher percent dry matter. Based on dry matter, if fruits were to be produced for crushed peppers, it might be more advantageous to use `Brown Lue'.
Robert L. Jarret
limited information is available on the extent of variability present for fruit characteristics of accessions within existing germplasm collections of C. baccatum . This study was conducted to examine the variability for mature fruit morphologic
Peter J. Dittmar, David W. Monks and Jonathan R. Schultheis
require special packaging. ‘Mickylee’ and ‘SF800’ are commonly grown for commercial sale but also used as pollenizers in North and South America. When selecting a pollenizer, vegetative, floral, and fruit characteristics should be considered. Factors that
Perry E. Nugent and Jeffrey Adelberg
Thirteen triploid lines of melon (Cucumis melo L.) were derived from crosses involving five tetraploid and seven diploid lines. Fruit characters were assessed. When allowed to open pollinate in field plots with adjacent diploid pollinators, eight triploid genotypes were sterile or nearly sterile (<1% viable seed). Five triploid genotypes were partially fertile, indicating viable pollen grains were present. Cytological analysis performed on progeny of a partially fertile triploid plant fertilized by open pollination indicated euploid female gametes were common. Triploid hybrids between tetraploid `Miniloup' and several other diploid parents had vegetative and fruit characteristics intermediate to the parents. Most triploid genotypes yielded round fruit in contrast to their diploid parent whose fruit were oval to oblong and the tetraploid parent that had oblate fruit. Sugar levels of some triploid hybrids were as high as diploid parents.
Carl E. Motsenbocker
Field and greenhouse studies examined the fruit detachment force (FDF) and fruit and pedicel characteristics of two lines of tabasco pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) at several stages of maturity. The detachment force of red-mature `McIlhenny Select' fruit at the calyx-fruit detachment area was lower than that of less mature fruit stages. The force required to detach red-mature Hard Pick (HP) tabasco fruit was higher than that of redmature `McIlhenny Select' fruit in the field and greenhouse. The fruit detachment force of red field-grown HP fruit was higher, and in the greenhouse was lower, than that of green or breaker fruit. HP fruit of all maturity stages, except red-mature, separated similarly to `McIlhenny Select' fruit with little or no fruit tissue attached to the calyx. Fruit detachment force was not correlated with any fruit or pedicel characteristics studied.
Frank Kappel, Robert Fisher-Fleming and Eugene J. Hogue
The relationship between the objective assessment of sensory attributes or fruit characteristics of pear (Pyrus communis L.) fruit and the corresponding consumer or sensory panel rating was studied. Optimum fruit diameter was between 6 and 7.5 cm. Some fruit were judged to be too large. Fruit with a bright yellow skin were rated ideal, whereas green or red skin was rated less favorably. A pyriform shape with a length: diameter ratio range of 1.44 to 1.48 was optimum. Round fruit or very elongated fruit were considered undesirable. Perceived firmness increased linearly as the measured firmness increased, with the optimum firmness at 27 to 30 N (using an 11.1-mm penetrometer tip). Perceived juiciness was negatively, linearly related to measured firmness. Ideal firmness for an ideal juiciness rating was 18 to 22 N. Acceptable soluble solids concentrations (SSC) varied with the study year, but ranged between 13.6% and 17.2%. The sweet/sour balance (ratio of SSC: titratable acidity) was a useful indicator of fruit quality.
Lindsay E. Wyatt, Amara R. Dunn, Matthew Falise, Stephen Reiners, Molly Jahn, Christine D. Smart and Michael Mazourek
commercial cultivars, especially under disease pressure, and they had a low incidence of silvering ( Dunn et al., 2013 ). In this study, we evaluated the ripe red harvest yield and fruit characteristics of the PR lines and several commercial cultivars