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Catherine S. Fleming, Mark S. Reiter, Joshua H. Freeman, and Rory Maguire

Tomato is an extensively grown vegetable crop on the Eastern Shore of Virginia (Accomack and Northampton counties). In 2011, 4600 acres of commercial fresh market tomato were harvested in Virginia, with an estimated value of $47.5 million [ U

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Rafael A. Muchanga, Toshiyuki Hirata, and Hajime Araki

fertilizer amount for fresh-market tomato production across different regions in Japan. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The plot area was 2.4 m 2 (3 × 0.8 m) for both years. Each plot contained 12

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Francesco Di Gioia, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Jason Hong, Nancy Kokalis-Burelle, Joseph Albano, Xin Zhao, Zack Black, Zhifeng Gao, Chris Wilson, John Thomas, Kelly Moore, Marilyn Swisher, Haichao Guo, and Erin N. Rosskopf

production of fresh-market tomato, accounting for 34% of the U.S. fresh-market tomato harvested area and 39% of the national crop value in 2014 ( USDA-NASS, 2015 ), the majority of which is produced using soil fumigation as the basis for pest management. The

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Lijia Shi, Jinghui Wang, Zhifeng Gao, Xin Zhao, Francesco Di Gioia, Haichao Guo, Jason Hong, Monica Ozores-Hampton, and Erin Rosskopf

practices ( Griliches, 1957 ; Rogers, 2010 ). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic feasibility of ASD compared with conventional CSF for open-field fresh-market tomato production. Costs and returns of three soil disinfestation treatments

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Monica Ozores-Hampton, Francesco Di Gioia, Shinjiro Sato, Eric Simonne, and Kelly Morgan

Fresh-market tomato is the most important vegetable crop in Florida with a harvested area of 13,355 ha and a production value of $437 million in 2014 ( USDA, 2015 ). Florida accounted for 34% of the national fresh-market tomato harvested area and 39

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Ibukun T. Ayankojo, Kelly T. Morgan, Monica Ozores-Hampton, and Kati W. Migliaccio

). In 2015, Florida fresh-market tomato was 36% of the total production value in the United States ( FDACS, 2017 ). In 2015, tomato ranked fourth in value among all agricultural commodities (crops) in Florida, with orange, sugarcane, and floriculture in

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James E. Motes and Raymond J. Schatzer

Fresh market tomato cultivar and cultural trials are conducted yearly at the Oklahoma Vegetable Research Station near Tulsa. From 14 to 18 cultivars have been evaluated each season since 1985 comparing the Florida stake-and-weave and the wire mesh cage cultural systems. Results from 7 years of trials indicate caging produced 32% greater marketable yield than the stake-and-weave system. Percentage early yield was reduced with the cage system. Percentage of cull fruit was greater with the stake-and-weave system due to a higher incidence of fruit cracking. Average fruit size was not affected by cultural system. Cost of production analysis showed a lower cost of production with the cage system. The cage system is more capital intensive and the stake-and-weave system is more labor intensive. Undesirable factors in the use of cages are greater difficulty in picking the early fruit clusters, logistics in off-season storage of cages and the larger capital investment required for the cage system.

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T.K. Hartz

Drip irrigation scheduling techniques for fresh market tomato production were compared in three consecutive seasons (1989-1991) in the southern coastal environment of Irvine, California. Three techniques were compared: 1) reference evapotranspiration (ETo, corrected Penman) × programmed crop coefficients (Kc), ranging from 0.2 (crop establishment) to 1.1 (full canopy development); 2) ETo × Kc, based on % canopy cover as estimated by average canopy width per row; and 3) irrigation at 20% available soil moisture depletion (SMD) at 30 cm, with recharge limited to a maximum of 0.8 × cumulative ETo since the previous irrigation. The use of programmed crop coefficients and Kc values based on % canopy cover gave equivalent yields and fruit size distribution in all years; there was no difference in crop response between daily irrigation and irrigation three times a week. Both scheduling techniques maintained soil water content in the top 45 cm near field capacity throughout the growing season. The use of Kc based on % cover required less total irrigation in all seasons, averaging 78% of seasonal ETo vs. 88% with programmed coefficients. Irrigation at 20% SMD required an average of only 66% of seasonal ETo; marketable yield was equivalent with the other scheduling techniques in 1989 and 1991 but showed a modest yield reduction in 1990.

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T.K. Hartz

Drip-irrigation scheduling techniques for fresh-market tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) production were compared in three growing seasons (1989-91). Three regimes were evaluated: EPK [reference evapotranspiration (ETo, corrected Penman) × programmed crop coefficients], ECC (ET0 × a crop coefficient based on estimated percent canopy coverage), and SMD (irrigation at 20% available soil moisture depletion). EPK coefficients ranged from 0.2 (crop establishment) to 1.1 (full canopy development). Percent canopy coverage was estimated from average canopy width ÷ row width. Irrigation in the SMD treatment was initiated at -24 kPa soil matric tension, with recharge limited to 80% of daily ET0. The EPK and ECC regimes gave similar fresh fruit yields and size distributions in all years. With the EPK scheduling technique, there was no difference in crop response between daily irrigation and irrigation three times per week. In all seasons, ECC scheduling resulted in less total water applied than EPK scheduling and averaged 76% of seasonal ET0 vs. 86% for EPK. Irrigating at 20% SMD required an average of only 64% of seasonal ET0; marketable yield was equal to the other scheduling techniques in 1989 and 1991, but showed a modest yield reduction in 1990. Using an SMD regime to schedule early season irrigation and an ECC system to guide application from mid-season to harvest may be the most appropriate approach for maximizing water-use efficiency and crop productivity.

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James W. Rushing

Mature-green fresh-market tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were held at 11 °C under controlled atmosphere (CA) at 4% O2 and 4% CO2 in a commercial intermodal shipping container equipped with a membrane-based nitrogen-generating CA system. After 4 weeks, tomatoes in CA had 11.9% decay compared to 46.4% decay in control samples held at the same temperature under normal atmosphere. During storage, color development in controls progressed from green to the light red stage in more than 50% of the fruit and only 4.5% remained green after 4 weeks. In contrast, CA stored samples had 25.7% of the fruit in green condition and only 3.9% had progressed to the light red stage. Following CA exposure tomatoes were held at 20 °C with or without 250 ppm C2H4 treatment to observe ripening. All samples ripened normally without symptoms of chilling injury. Results suggest that CA is a useful method for reducing decay and delaying ripening during international transport.