Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for :

  • "freezing stress resistance" x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Free access

Beth Ann A. Workmaster and Jiwan P. Palta

`Stevens' cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) terminal bud freezing stress resistance was assessed by nonlinear regression utilizing relative scoring of the post-thaw bud growth and development based on defined bud stages 2 weeks following controlled freezing tests. Bud stages tested were chosen based on a phenology profile from each sampling date throughout the spring season. Previous year (overwintering) leaf freezing stress resistance was evaluated after both 2 days (injury) and 2 weeks (survival). The Gompertz function with a bootstrapping method was used to estimate the tissues' relative freezing stress resistance as the LT50. Bud injury levels (LT50) were expressed as the temperatures at which the mean potential regrowth capability was impaired by 50%, as compared with the unfrozen controls. In leaves, the LT50 is the temperature at which 50% injury (2-day evaluation) or survival (2-week evaluation) was modeled to occur. Dramatic changes in terminal bud relative freezing stress resistance occurred both within and between the tight and swollen bud stages. These results clearly show that seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance do not necessarily parallel changes in crop phenology and bud development. These results indicate that some physiological, biochemical, or fine anatomical changes may explain the seasonal loss in hardiness within a visual bud stage. Previous year leaves may possess the ability to recover from freeze-induced injury, as leaf survival was found to be the most reliable indicator of cranberry leaf hardiness. Major shifts in phenology and bud and leaf hardiness coincided with the rise of minimum canopy-level air temperatures to above freezing. The nonlinear regression technique utilized made it possible to estimate LT50 with data points comprising half or more of the sigmoidal dose response curve. Our study provides precise and quantitative estimates of the cold hardiness changes in cranberry terminal buds and leaves in spring. From precise estimates we were able to define critical temperatures for the impairment of cranberry bud growth. This is the first systematic study of cranberry terminal bud cold hardiness and spring bud development in relation to changes in the soil and air temperatures under natural conditions. Our study shows that regrowth assessment of the cranberry upright inherently describes the composite effects of freezing stress on plant health.

Free access

Beth Ann A. Workmaster, Jiwan P. Palta, and Michael Wisniewski

Infrared video thermography was used to study formation of ice in leaves, stems, and fruit of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. `Stevens'). Ice formed on the plant surface at -1 or -2 °C by freezing of a droplet of water containing ice nucleation-active bacteria (Pseudomonas syringae van Hall). Samples were then cooled to a minimum of -8 °C. Observations on the initiation and propagation of ice were recorded. Leaves froze only when ice was present on the abaxial surface. Once initiated, ice propagated to the stem and then readily to other leaves. In both unripe and ripe fruit, ice propagation from the stem to the fruit via the pedicel was not observed. Fruit remained supercooled for up to 1 hour after ice was present in the stem. Fruit could only be nucleated when ice was present at the calyx (distal) end. Red (ripe) berries supercooled to colder temperatures and for longer durations than blush (unripe) berries before an apparent intrinsic nucleation event occurred. These observations provide evidence that leaves are nucleated by ice penetration via stomata. The ability of fruit to supercool appears to be related to the presence of barriers to extrinsic ice propagation at both the pedicel and fruit surface. Stomata at the calyx end of the fruit in the remnant nectary area may provide avenues for extrinsic ice nucleation.

Free access

Jiwan P. Palta* and Gerard Simon

Freezing stress resistance is composed of several components namely tolerance, avoidance and acclimation ability. These three components of freezing stress are heritable traits. We have demonstrated that progress in the improvement of freezing stress resistance can be made by individually selecting for various components of this resistance and then recombining them to get the desired plan. Freeze-thaw injury in carrots is manifested as damage to the foliage, cracks on the roots (especially on the crown), and crown root rot. We found that foliage damage following freeze-thaw stress was related to the tolerance of the foliage to ice formation. The formation of cracks in the crown and root tissue was related to formation of ice itself. The carrot breeding lines we tested varied considerably for the crown position in relation to soil surface. The carrot crowns and roots below the soil surface will be better in avoiding ice in the tissue, thus avoiding cracks. The freeze-thaw injury observed on the foliage in the field was highly correlated to the freeze-thaw tolerance of leaf tissue (measured as ion leakage from the leaf tissue) determined by controlled freeze-thaw test in the laboratory. Based on this work we developed a breeding strategy to improve frost hardiness in carrots by combining the characteristics that avoid ice in the crown and root tissues (e.g., crown position underground) with the characteristics that reduce foliage and root injury by ice (freezing tolerance of foliage). By using this strategy we were able to successfully obtain the desired plant. Two hardy carrot hybrids (Eskimo, Artico) were released by Vilmorin and their hardy characteristics have been confirmed under field conditions.

Free access

Lisa J. Rowland, Anik L. Dhanaraj, Dhananjay Naik, Nadim Alkharouf, Ben Matthews, and Rajeev Arora

Sutinen, M.L. Palta, J.P. Reich, P.B. 1992 Seasonal differences in freezing stress resistance of needles of Pinus nigra and Pinus resinosa : Evaluation of the electrolyte leakage method Tree Physiol. 11 241 254

Free access

Wei Hao, Rajeev Arora, Anand K. Yadav, and Nirmal Joshee

of the plasma membrane in freezing injury and cold acclimation Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 35 543 584 Sutinen, M.-L. Palta, J.P. Reich, P.B. 1992 Seasonal differences in freezing stress resistance of