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Jeff A. Anderson

Plant resistance to freezing stress includes avoidance, evasion, and tolerance strategies ( Levitt, 1980 ). Many annual plants complete the vegetative phase of the life cycle when freezing temperatures do not normally occur, effectively evading the

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Wei Hao, Rajeev Arora, Anand K. Yadav and Nirmal Joshee

-stained gel. Discussion The results presented here provide information on the physiological responses of guava to freezing stress and CA. We investigated the ability of guava leaves to tolerate freezing stress and exhibit CA. We also studied cold

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Christian M. Baldwin, Haibo Liu, Lambert B. McCarty, Hong Luo, Joe Toler and Steven H. Long

freezing tolerance ( Gusta et al., 1996 ), whereas a proper fertility program can minimize winter injury ( Webster and Ebdon, 2005 ). Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the diversity of turfgrass freezing stress tolerance ( Ebdon et al

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J.S. Ebdon, R.A. Gagne and R.C. Manley

Turf loss from freezing injury results in costly reestablishment, especially with turfgrasses such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) having poor low-temperature tolerance. However, no studies have been conducted to investigate the relative importance of low-temperature tolerance and its contribution to turfgrass quality (performance) in northern climates. The objective of this research was to compare critical freezing thresholds (LT50) of 10 perennial ryegrass cultivars representing contrasting turf-quality types (five high- and five low-performance cultivars). Cultivar selection was based on turfgrass quality ranking (top and bottom five) from the 1997 National Turfgrass Evaluation Program (NTEP) trial conducted at the Maine (Orono) location. Ten freeze-stress temperatures (-3 to -21 °C) and a nonfrozen control (5 °C) were applied to 5-month-old plants. Acclimated (AC) plant material maintained in an unheated polyhouse during the fall and winter in Massachusetts was compared to nonacclimated (NA) plant material (grown at 18 °C minimum in a greenhouse). Low-temperature tolerance was assessed using whole-plant survival and electrolyte leakage (EL). Estimates of LT50 were derived from fitted EL and survival curves using nonlinear regression. High-performance cultivars were able to tolerate significantly lower freeze-stress temperatures indicated by less EL and greater survival compared to low-performance cultivars. The EL method had good predictive capability for low-temperature survival. Acclimated tissues and high-performance cultivars had significantly flatter EL curves and lower mortality rates. These results underscore the importance of selecting cold-tolerant perennial ryegrass genotypes for adaptation to northern climates.

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D.E. Webster and J.S. Ebdon

Turf loss from freezing injury results in costly re-establishment, especially with turfgrasses such as perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) having poor low-temperature hardiness. Studies are limited as to the influence of N and K on cold tolerance during dehardening periods in late winter when grasses are most susceptible to freezing injury. The objective of this study was to evaluate perennial ryegrass low temperature hardiness during deacclimation in response to N and K and associated effects on crown hydration, median killing temperature (LT50), shoot growth rate, tissue K concentration, soil exchangeable K, and low temperature disease. Treatments included five rate levels of N (49, 147, 245, 343, and 441 kg·ha-1·yr-1) in all factorial combinations with 3 rate levels of K (49, 245, and 441 kg·ha-1·yr-1). Low temperature tolerance was assessed using whole plant survival and electrolyte leakage (EL). Interactions between N and K were detected for all field measurements. The effects of N and K on survival LT50 were detected only during late winter periods in February 2004, N and K differences were lost by March. Late winter cold survival was negatively correlated with crown moisture, growth rate, and tissue K. Tissue K concentrations ranged from 28.6 to 35.9 g·kg–1 DM while soil K ranged from 121 to 261 mg·kg–1. Soil extractable K was not correlated with tissue K. Survival and EL LT50 were uncorrelated due to N and K interaction. Survival LT50 ranged from –9.0 to –13.6 °C. Maximum cold hardiness occurred when low to moderate N (49 to 147 kg·ha-1·yr-1) was applied with medium-high to high levels of K (245 to 441 kg·ha-1·yr-1), which corresponded to soil exchangeable K levels ranging from 200 to 260 mg·kg–1. Alternatively, similar K fertilization and soil K levels combined with high rates of N (343 and 441 kg·ha-1·yr-1) increased freeze stress and low temperature fungi (Typhula incarnata). At N rates routinely applied to perennial ryegrass, higher soil extractable K beyond those levels currently recommended for optimum shoot growth could provide some benefit in enhancing cold hardiness. Late fall applied N did not appear to increase the potential for winter injury.

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Mark Rieger

Spring frost events reduce fruit production in the southeastern United States more than any other factor, with some losses occurring in 5 out of 7 years. Orchard heaters, wind machines, and overhead irrigation are sound methods of reducing losses, but their relatively high cost is a major deterrent for fruit growers (Castaldi, 1990). A potentially leas-costly and more water- efficient approach to frost protection is overtree microsprinkling. Microsprinkler irrigation was applied either beneath or onto canopies of 4-year-old `Loring' peach [Prunus persica (L.)] trees at a rate of 38 liters/h per tree to evaluate the relative efficacy of low-volume undertree and overtree microsprinkling for frost protection. Overtree microsprinkling maintained flower bud temperatures 2C during a calm, radiative frost on 20-21 Mar. 1990 (minimum air temperature -4.4C), whereas undertree sprinkling provided 0.5C of air temperature elevation at a comparable height in trees (2 m). Twelve days later, fruit set was lower for nonirrigated and undertree-irrigated trees (none to one fruit/m of shoot length) than for trees irrigated with overtree microsprinklers (eight to nine fruit/m of shoot length). Economic analysis showed that capital costs of overtree microsprinkler systems increased annual costs of peach production by 8% to 13%, which required increased yield (or price per unit yield) of 17% to 20% before profits exceeded those of nonirrigated orchards, assuming all else equal. The estimated 1% increase in annual production costs of overtree microsprinkling compared to undertree microsprinkling appears to be justified by the increased efficacy of the overtree system.

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Mark Rieger, Gerard Krewer, Pam Lewis, Mindy Linton and Tom McClendon

Sixteen cultivars of citrus (Citrus spp.) and close citrus relatives were planted in Savannah, Georgia to evaluate their potential as fruiting landscape trees in an area that routinely experiences minimum temperatures of 15 to 20 °F (-9.4 to -6.7 °C) during winter. Three to six trees of each cultivar were planted in 1998, and stem dieback and defoliation data were collected in 1999, 2001, and 2002. During the 4 years of the study, air temperatures fell below 32 °F (0.0 °C) 27 to 62 times per season, with absolute minima ranging from 13 to 18 °F (-10.6 to -7.8 °C), depending on year. In general, kumquats (Fortunella spp.), represented by `Meiwa', `Nagami', and `Longevity', were completely killed (or nearly so) in their first year in the field after air temperature minima of 13.5 °F (-10.28 °C). Others experiencing 100% dieback were `Meyer' lemon (Citrus limon × C. reticulata) and `Eustis' limequat (C. aurantifolia × Fortunella japonica), which were tested twice during the study. Kumquat hybrids, including procimequat [(C. aurantifolia × F. japonica) × F. hindsii), `Sinton' citrangequat [(C. sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata) × unknown kumquat], `Mr John's Longevity' citrangequat [(C. sinensis × P. trifoliata) × F. obovat], razzlequat (Eremocitrus glauca × unknown kumquat), and `Nippon' orangequat (C. unshiu × F. crassifolia) survived freezing, but all experienced at least some defoliation and stem dieback. `Owari' satsuma (C. unshiu), `Changsha' mandarin (C. reticulata), nansho daidai (C. taiwanica) and ichang papeda (C. ichangensis) experienced only minor stem dieback but substantial defoliation in most years, except that ichang papeda was substantially damaged in the last year of the study. Seven cultivars produced fruit at least once during their first 4 years: nansho daidai, ichang papeda, `Nippon' orangequat, `Mr John's Longevity' citrangequat, `Owari' satsuma, `Changsha' mandarin, and procimequat. Based on cold hardiness, fruiting, and growth characteristics, `Owari' satsuma, `Changsha' mandarin, `Mr John's Longevity' citrangequat, and `Nippon' orangequat provided the hardiest, most precocious and desirable fruiting landscape trees in this study.

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Shaoli Lu and Mark Rieger

One-year-old kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et R. Ferguson var. deliciosa] vines were grown under 8- and 16-hour photoperiods to study the influence of photoperiod on cold acclimation and determine the potential level of hardiness that young vines attain. Vines were acclimated by reducing growth chamber temperature at 2-week intervals, beginning at 31/20C (16 hours/8 hours) and ending with 15/5C after 8 weeks. Vines receiving an 8-hour photoperiod were more cold hardy than vines receiving a 16-hour photoperiod after 4 weeks of acclimation as determined by electrolyte leakage from stem tissues. Moreover, vines receiving an 8-hour photoperiod survived freezing at – 9C at the end of the 8-week acclimation period, whereas those receiving a 16-hour photoperiod were killed at – 6C. Vine survival and electrolyte leakage of sterns were highly correlated (r = – 0.79 to – 0.90).

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Michela Centinari, Maria S. Smith and Jason P. Londo

injury on a hybrid grapevine cultivar and to explore the relationship between shoot mortality induced by freezing temperature and stage of phenological development. Materials and Methods A controlled-freezing method was used to impose freezing stress on

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Beth Ann A. Workmaster and Jiwan P. Palta

`Stevens' cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) terminal bud freezing stress resistance was assessed by nonlinear regression utilizing relative scoring of the post-thaw bud growth and development based on defined bud stages 2 weeks following controlled freezing tests. Bud stages tested were chosen based on a phenology profile from each sampling date throughout the spring season. Previous year (overwintering) leaf freezing stress resistance was evaluated after both 2 days (injury) and 2 weeks (survival). The Gompertz function with a bootstrapping method was used to estimate the tissues' relative freezing stress resistance as the LT50. Bud injury levels (LT50) were expressed as the temperatures at which the mean potential regrowth capability was impaired by 50%, as compared with the unfrozen controls. In leaves, the LT50 is the temperature at which 50% injury (2-day evaluation) or survival (2-week evaluation) was modeled to occur. Dramatic changes in terminal bud relative freezing stress resistance occurred both within and between the tight and swollen bud stages. These results clearly show that seasonal changes in freezing stress resistance do not necessarily parallel changes in crop phenology and bud development. These results indicate that some physiological, biochemical, or fine anatomical changes may explain the seasonal loss in hardiness within a visual bud stage. Previous year leaves may possess the ability to recover from freeze-induced injury, as leaf survival was found to be the most reliable indicator of cranberry leaf hardiness. Major shifts in phenology and bud and leaf hardiness coincided with the rise of minimum canopy-level air temperatures to above freezing. The nonlinear regression technique utilized made it possible to estimate LT50 with data points comprising half or more of the sigmoidal dose response curve. Our study provides precise and quantitative estimates of the cold hardiness changes in cranberry terminal buds and leaves in spring. From precise estimates we were able to define critical temperatures for the impairment of cranberry bud growth. This is the first systematic study of cranberry terminal bud cold hardiness and spring bud development in relation to changes in the soil and air temperatures under natural conditions. Our study shows that regrowth assessment of the cranberry upright inherently describes the composite effects of freezing stress on plant health.