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Jason D. Hinton, David P. Livingston III, Grady L. Miller, Charles H. Peacock, and Tan Tuong

cultivar to use. The selection of the best grass for different environments is crucial to creating superior turf. Areas of turf loss resulting from freeze stress could lead to re-establishment costs, increases in weed pressure, soil erosion, and a reduction

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Asadolah Aslani Aslamarz, Kourosh Vahdati, Majid Rahemi, Darab Hassani, and Charles Leslie

Low temperature is a major limiting factor in the distribution of woody plants and freeze injury is a leading cause of horticultural yield losses ( Ashworth, 1992 ; George et al., 1974 ; Parker, 1963 ). Resistance to freeze injury changes

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David Obenland, Dennis Margosan, Sue Collin, James Sievert, Kent Fjeld, Mary Lu Arpaia, James Thompson, and David Slaughter

fruit ( Manners et al., 2003 ). The degree of freeze damage to the fruit of a particular orchard subjected to mild to moderate freezing conditions usually cannot be readily determined by the eye as navel oranges often do not show obvious injury to the

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M. Lenny Wells

susceptibility of pecan trees to freeze injury. These include dormancy, insect and disease injury, air drainage, cultivar, tree health, tree size, and seedling versus cultivar trunk ( Sparks and Payne, 1978 ). Sparks and Payne (1978) suggests that late spring

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Robert C. Ebel, Monte Nesbitt, William A. Dozier Jr., and Fenny Dane

650 ha scattered throughout Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas ( Dozier, 1924 ). There were seven packing facilities that shipped fruit to 45 cities in the United States, Canada, and England ( Dozier, 1924 ). Several freezes in the 1920s and

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Arthur T. DeGaetano

Apple growers in the northeastern United States often experience spring freeze injury to their crops. During recent years, the cumulative effect of relatively mild winter temperatures has advanced leaf-emergence and bloom, leaving critical

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Frederick S. Davies and Glenn Zalman

( Fidelibus et al., 2002 ). Gibberellic acid also affects freeze hardiness of citrus trees in some cases. Cooper and Peynado (1958) applied 100 mg·L −1 GA 3 to grapefruit trees in Texas in the fall and observed that these trees produced growth flushes

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Donald T. Jensen, Schuyler D. Seeley, James Frisby, and Greg McCurdy

A Latin Square design was used to determine effects of undertree irrigation on orchard temperatures during freezes. Plots (40 × 40 m) in a tart cherry orchard included 72 trees. Water was applied at 0, 125, 250 and 380 (± 5%) liters/min. Four meter towers held shielded thermocouples at 1, 2, 2.5, 3 and 4 meters. Thermocouples were monitored at 10-second increments using a Campbell Scintific CR10 micrologger. AM32 multiplexers switched between the 96 thermocouples involved. An IBM AT compatible computer retrieved and stored data from the micrologger at 10-minute intervals. The data acquisition system was activated shortly after midnight and operated continuously until after sunrise on three near-freeze nights. No significant heating effect was present at any water level. On one of the nights, a refrigeration effect was documented.

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James O. Denney and George C. Martin

Record low temperatures were experienced in California during the last 10 days of December, 1990. Olive trees in both the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys suffered damage from the freeze. The lowest minimum recorded in these areas was -11.6C at Willows (Glenn Co.). Types of damage included death of succulent growing tips, defoliation, bark split, and bark and xylem discoloration. Tree death to the ground was uncommon. Defoliation continued throughout the growing season, and many leaves that persisted became chlorotic. Major outbreaks of olive knot disease caused by Pseudomonas savastanoi were seen in damaged trees, especially in `Manzanillo.' Anatomical studies showed evidence of ice nucleation events in the phloem, xylem, and leaves, but the cambium was usually left intact. Refoliation and healing of bark splits progressed rapidly once growth resumed in the spring, except in cases of olive knot infestation. Cultural practices that predisposed trees to freeze damage were those leading to late-season vegetative growth, namely fall pruning and late or excessive irrigation or fertilization. `Manzanillo' is the least cold-hardy of California cultivars and the most susceptible to olive knot. `Barouni' is the most hardy.

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Lakshmy Gopinath, Justin Quetone Moss, and Yanqi Wu

bermudagrasses, which could be a reason for their susceptibility to prevalent diseases ( Fang et al., 2017 ; Wang et al., 2010 ). Therefore, there is a need for new greens-type hybrid bermudagrass genotypes/cultivars with improved freeze tolerance and broader