Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 17 items for :

  • "free space" x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Free access

Shohei Yamaki and Migifumi Ino

A study was conducted to determine the distribution of sugars in vacuoles, cytoplasm, and free space in apples (Malus domestica Bork) picked at the immature and mature stage of maturity. The volumes of free space and air space were 13.4% and 14.5%, respectively, in immature fruit, and 14.6% and 25.6%, respectively, in mature fruit. The inner cellular volume (vacuole + cytoplasm) was 72% and 60% for immature and mature fruit, respectively. About 90% of each sugar (glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol) was found in the vacuole. The concentration of total sugar in the inner cell or free space was 326 or 128 mm each in immature fruit and 937 or 406 mm each in mature fruit. Permeability to sugars across the plasma membrane and tonoplast also increased with fruit maturation, 7- to 30-fold for the tonoplast and 4- to 5-fold for the plasma membrane in mature compared to immature fruit. Cells in immature fruit apparently enlarge through higher turgor pressure from sequestering of sugars into vacuoles, and cease to enlarge in mature fruit as the amount of sugar unloading into the fruit is reduced due to the accumulation of sugar in the free space or cytoplasm.

Free access

Ofosu-Anim John and Shohei Yamaki

Using the compartmental analysis method, the distribution of sucrose, glucose, and fructose and their efflux from the free space, cytoplasm, and vacuole were determined in Nyoho strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) picked 25 or 35 days after pollination (DAP). At both stages, >70% of total sugar accumulated in the vacuole. Concentration of sugar in the free space increased from 167 mm in fruit at 25 DAP to 217 mm at 35 DAP, whereas that within the cell (cytoplasm + vacuole) increased from 233 to 352 mm. Permeability of the plasma membrane to sucrose, glucose, and fructose was higher than that of the tonoplast and, except for that of fructose, the permeability of the plasma membrane to sugars increased with fruit maturation. ABA at 10-5 m compared to 10-4 m restricted the release of all sugars from fruit discs and was due mainly to reduced efflux across the plasma membrane rather than the tonoplast. Thus ABA may stimulate the accumulation of sugars in fruit flesh by restricting their efflux. Chemical name used: abscisic acid (ABA).

Open access

Bruce W. Wood

Abstract

In an effort to identify the primary transfer carbohydrates and to describe their characteristics of uptake by pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh C. Koch)] leaf disks, it was discovered that the major carbohydrates in pecan xylem and phloem exudate and leaf free space leachate were sucrose, fructose, glucose, and inositol. Sucrose was the primary component of each of these systems. Uptake of sucrose, glucose, and fructose by leaf tissues was biphasic with a saturable active (sensitive to CCCP) carrier-like component and a nonsaturating passive (insensitive to CCCP) diffusion-like component. Uptake by the saturable component predominated at levels below 8 and 14 mM for fructose and glucose, respectively, and up to at least 40 mM for sucrose. The observations of a preponderance of sucrose in the free space of leaf disk and a sucrose V max an order of magnitude greater than for fructose or glucose suggests that sucrose is the major uptake carbohydrate moving from the leaf free space into the cytoplasm. The observation that uptake of any of these three sugars was noncompetitively inhibited by the other two sugars and that their uptake was unequally influenced by metabolic inhibitors suggests the possible presence of a separate carrier for each sugar. Sucrose uptake also appeared to be without hydrolysis and was coupled to the co-transport of protons with uptake diminishing with decreasing apoplastic proton levels.

Free access

W.J. van der Burg, J.W. Aartse, R.A van Zwol, H. Jalink, and R.J. Bino

Studies based on X-ray photographs were conducted to predict the morphology of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings at transplanting stage. Currently, seed-lot quality of tomato seeds for growing commercial transplants is determined with grow-out tests in the greenhouse because the standard germination test fails to predict the percentage of normal or usable transplants (UTs). These grow-out tests, however, are difficult to standardize. An X-ray evaluation procedure is presented as an alternative. X-ray images nondestructively provide information on embryo size and morphology and the amount of endosperm and the area of free space. These parameters correlate well with the morphology of 14-day old seedlings. Cotyledon morphology has the highest correlation with the percentage of UTs. A test based on the evaluation of X-ray images, classifying the cotyledon morphology and seed free space, predicts the percentage of UTs more accurately than the currently used germination test. A second method based on an equation that uses the probabilities of all X-ray categories proportionally predicts the percentage of UTs of primed seeds more accurately than the first method. Selecting individual seeds based on X-ray images has the potential to raise the percentage of UTs of seed lots. On the average, the percentage of UTs of control seeds was 22% higher after hand selection based on X-ray evaluation. Primed seeds gave 12% higher results. Hence, X-ray analysis can predict seedling performance and enable the selection of high-quality seeds.

Free access

Wayne Loescher, Tad Johnson, Randolph Beaudry, and Sastry Jayanty

Sorbitol is the major carbohydrate translocated into apple fruit where it is normally metabolized to fructose. In watercored apple fruit tissues, however, the intercellular spaces become flooded and sorbitol content is consistently higher than in nonwatercored apples, suggesting a defect in sugar alcohol metabolism or transport. Our previous results have identified and characterized two sorbitol transporters, MsSOT1 and MsSOT2, in apple fruit tissues. Sorbitol transporter gene expression has been implicated in development of watercore with MsSOT expression diminished or absent in certain watercored fruit tissues. To explore this further, we have investigated the relationships between watercore, fruit maturation, fruit composition, and MsSOT expression in a number of apple cultivars that differ in watercore susceptibility. We also compared transporter expression between affected (watercored) and healthy parts of the same fruit and between watercored and nonwatercored fruits throughout the maturation and ripening processes. The MsSOT expression was often dramatically reduced in fruit tissues exhibiting watercore. Thus, in susceptible cultivars, maturing (ripening) fruit parenchyma cells lose the ability to transport sorbitol, and this in turn leads to sorbitol accumulation in the apoplastic free space and subsequent flooding of these spaces. These results are consistent with a relationship between watercore and sorbitol transport and also with a genetic susceptibility to the disorder.

Open access

Jaleh Daie

Abstract

Sugars are a major storage carbohydrate and a primary component of carrot root quality. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of sugar transport into the storage cells of carrot [Daucus carota (L.)]. Tissue disks were incubated in a buffered solution (pH 6.5) containing various concentrations of sucrose, glucose, or fructose, 1 mm CaCl2, and 100 mm mannitol. Passive uptake was defined as uptake in the presence of 5 μm carbonyl cyanide, - m chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP). Active uptake was the difference between total (–CCCP) and passive uptake. Characteristic, biphasic kinetics were observed for all sugars. At sugar concentrations below 10 mm, a saturating active component was operating. Above 10 mm, the influx was a nonsaturating, linear transport system. Active transport was pH dependent, showing high rates of uptake at low pH. Glucose and fructose did not inhibit sucrose influx and vice versa, but they did compete with each other. The kinetics of the hexose competition was noncompetitive inhibition. The competition studies suggested the presence of a separate carrier for each sugar. The evidence indicated that sugar transport across membranes of carrot storage cells is a combination of active and passive transport, consistent with transport kinetics observed in other crops. Active sugar uptake is a significant part of uptake, doubling influx at low apoplastic concentrations. At maturity, sucrose is the major transport and storage sugar. Glucose and fructose however, are transported at considerable rates in vitro, when they are present in the free space.

Free access

Zhifang Gao, Sastry Jayanty, Randolph Beaudry, and Wayne Loescher

In apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.), where sorbitol is a primary photosynthetic product that is translocated throughout the plant, accumulation of sorbitol in sink cells appears to require an active carrier-mediated membrane transport step. Recent progress in isolation and characterization of genes for sorbitol transporters in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and mannitol transporters in celery (Apium graveolens L.) suggested that similar transporters may be present in apple tissues. A defect in these transporters could also explain the occurrence of the fruit disorder watercore, characterized by the accumulation of fluids and sorbitol in the apoplasmic free space. Our objectives therefore included isolation and characterization of genes for sorbitol transporters in apple tissues and comparisons of expression of transporter genes, especially in various sink tissues including watercored and non-watercored fruit tissues. We have isolated and characterized two sorbitol transporter genes, MdSOT1 and MdSOT2. Sequence analyses indicated that these are members of the major facilitator transporter superfamily that gives rise to highly hydrophobic integral membrane proteins. Heterologous expression and measurement of sorbitol uptake in yeast indicated that these are specific and with high affinities for sorbitol, with Kms for sorbitol of 1.0 and 7.8 mm for MdSOT1 and MdSOT2, respectively. Sorbitol transporter expression was evident in all sink tissues tested with the exception of watercore-affected fruit tissues. Sorbitol accumulation in apple sink tissues thus involves an apoplasmic active membrane transport step and watercore results from a defect in that process.

Open access

Janice C. Morrison, L. Carl Greve, and John M. Labavitch

Abstract

Cell wall-degrading enzymes were extracted from the cell wall free space of mesocarp tissue from immature almonds [Prunus dulcis(Mill.)D.A. Webb, ‘Nonpareil’]. The activities of several of these enzymes were found to correlate with the development of gum ducts in this tissue. Polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) and 1,3-β-D-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.39) activities rose sharply at, or just prior to, the early schizogenous stage of duct initiation, while increases in α-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.22), β-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.23), α-arabinosidase (EC 3.2.1.55), and α-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.24) activities were correlated with the later lysigenous stage of duct formation. Cell wall analysis of almond mesocarp tissue sampled the week preceding gum duct formation determined that the predominant noncellulosic sugars present in the mesocarp cell walls are arabinose, galactose, xylose, and glucose, with smaller amounts of rhamnose and mannose also present. The walls also contain a high percentage of galacturonic acid and trace amounts of glucuronic acid. Methylation analysis of the cell walls confirmed that many of the specific glycosidic linkages that are cleaved by the enzymes tested are present in the mesocarp cell walls immediately prior to gum duct formation.

Free access

Robert A. Saftner, William S. Conway, and Carl E. Sams

Changes in tissue water relations, cell wall calcium (Ca) levels and physical properties of Ca-treated and untreated `Golden Delicious' apples (Malus×domestica Borkh.) were monitored for up to 8 months after harvest. Pressure infiltration of fruit with CaCl2 solutions at concentrations up to 0.34 mol·L-1 reduced both fruit softening and air space volume of fruit in a concentration-dependent manner. Turgor potential-related stress within the fruit persisted during storage and was higher in Ca-treated than in untreated fruit. Fruit that were pressure infiltrated with CaCl2 solutions between 0.14 and 0.20 mol·L-1 and then waxed to reduce water loss during storage showed no peel injury. Calcium efflux patterns from apple tissue disks indicated two distinct Ca compartments having efflux kinetics consistent with those for cell wall Donnan-phase bound and water free space soluble Ca. At Ca concentrations up to 0.20 mol·L-1, cell wall bound Ca approached saturation whereas soluble Ca showed a linear dependence. At higher external Ca concentrations, only soluble Ca in the tissue increased. During 8 months of cold storage, cell wall Ca-binding capacity increased up to 48%. The osmotic potential of apples harvested over three seasons ranged between-1.32 and -2.33 MPa. In tissue disks, turgor potential changes caused by adjusting the osmolality of the incubation solution with CaCl2 or sorbitol were accompanied by changes in the osmotic and water potentials of the tissue. In CaCl2 solutions up to 0.34 mol·L-1, turgor potential was ≥0.6 MPa in tissue incubated in 0.14 or 0.17 mol·L-1 solutions of CaCl2 and was more than 3 times higher than in tissues incubated in low (≤0.03 mol·L-1) or high (≥0.27 mol·L-1) concentrations of CaCl2. At osmotically equivalent concentrations, turgor potential was up to 40% higher in Ca-than in sorbitol-treated tissue. The results suggest that postharvest treatment with 0.14 to 0.20 mol·L-1 solutions of CaCl2 are best for maintaining fruit water relations and storage life of `Golden Delicious' apples while minimizing the risk of salt-related injuries to the fruit. While higher concentrations of CaCl2 may better maintain firmness, these treatments adversely affect fruit water relations and increase the risk of fruit injury.

Free access

Cibele Mantovani, Jonas Pereira de Souza Júnior, Renato de Mello Prado, and Kathia Fernandes Lopes Pivetta

leakage to the apparent free space ( Horváth et al., 2007 ). This phenomenon leads to losses in plant metabolism and may reflect on growth variables in different ways. Given this scenario and assuming the hypothesis that orchids cultivated in vitro are