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Alan W. Meerow, Stewart T. Reed, Christopher Dunn and Elena Schnell

, genetic characterization of flower scent is still incomplete ( Dudareva and Negre, 2005 ; Dudareva and Pichersky, 2000 , 2006 ). A few floral fragrance genes have been identified from plants with very fragrant flowers (e.g., Clarkia breweri and

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Cary J. Hebert, Darren H. Touchell, Thomas G. Ranney and Anthony V. LeBude

, which has been in the nursery industry for over 100 years. ‘Fragrantissimum Improved’ exhibits a compact growth habit, attractive exfoliating bark, lush evergreen foliage, and clusters of large, white blushed pink, pleasantly fragrant flowers. These

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Jia Xiangyun and Zhang Deshun

Tobira Pittosporum (Pittosporum tobira) is an evergreen and broadleaf shrub with fragrant flowers. The introduction began in 1978. The plants blossomed and bore fruits in 1981. The seedlings grew up from seeding in 1982, then the freeze resistances of seedling were experimented with the Spartan Training System according to follow proper sequence and make steading progress rule. Some excellent plants were sifted out progressively. In order to enrich the afforestation materials in Jinan, it offers a new species.

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Sandra M. Reed

Clethra alnifolia, which is commonly known as summersweet, is an attractive deciduous shrub that produces fragrant flower in mid-summer. Breeding efforts are hampered by a lack of information on the reproductive behavior of this native species. The objective of this study was to evaluate self-compatibility in C. alnifolia. Pollen germination and pollen tube growth in styles were examined following self- and cross-pollinations using fluorescence microscopy. Seed set and germination were compared following self- and cross-pollinations. While self-pollen tubes appeared to grow slightly slower than cross-pollen tubes, there was no indication of a self-incompatibility system acting at the stigmatic or stylar level in C. alnifolia. Self-pollinations of `Hummingbird' and `Ruby Spice' produced fewer seeds than did cross-pollinations of these cultivars. Germination of all seed obtained from this study was too poor to allow a comparison of germination rates of the self- and cross-pollinated seed. However, because a few self-progeny were obtained, emasculation is recommended when making controlled pollinations. The presence of a late-acting self-incompatibility system or early acting inbreeding depression was proposed as being responsible for the lower seed set following self-pollination.

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Shunzhao Sui, Jianghui Luo, Daofeng Liu, Jing Ma, Weiting Men, Lu Fan, Yu Bai and Mingyang Li

Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is a woody garden plant with fragrant flowers, which blooms in deep winter. The vase life of fresh cut flowers is 8–9 days. We applied ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP; an ethylene action inhibitor) to test the role of ethylene in flower opening and senescence. In addition, abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA3), two cytokinins, 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA), and zeatin (ZT) were also applied. The expression pattern of CpSRG1, a senescence-related gene, was analyzed. Ethylene treatment accelerated flower opening and senescence, decreasing vase life by 2.1 days. It also decreased flower break strength, indicating the induction of abscission. 1-MCP slowed opening, delayed senescence, and prolonged vase life by 2.6 days. Ethylene dramatically induced the expression of the CpSRG1 gene, while 1-MCP suppressed it. ZT promoted flower opening and increased vase life by 1.6 days. It suppressed the expression of CpSRG1. 6-BA, GA3, or ABA had no significant effect on flower opening and senescence of wintersweet.

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Alan W. Meerow, Timothy K. Broschat and Michael E. Kane

An amaryllis breeding program using diploid species not represented in commercial tetraploid cultivars has been underway since 1988. Objectives are to develop evergreen cultivars with attractive foliage and fragrant flowers of novel form and coloration. Five crosses with Hippeastrum papilio as a parent were evaluated at first flowering in the spring of 1990. The F-1's showed significant variation, suggestive of high heterozygosity within the parental genomes. Several natural tetraploids were identified among the progeny. Superior selections were made, and sib- or intercrosses accomplished. We estimate that a minimum of 50% genes from H. papilio will need to be maintained to guarantee evergreen foliage in the progeny. Superior F-1's have also been crossed with fragrant, trumpet-flowered primary hybrids, and new primary F-1's are being generated with H. papilio and these species or their hybrids, as well as with H. reticulatum var. striatifolium. A percentage of these germinated seedlings have been treated with colchicine to induce polyploidy. The best F-1 selections are also being micropropagated, and induction of polyploidy will be attempted in a percentage of the subcultures.

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Roberto G. Lopez and Erik S. Runkle

The vegetatively propagated `Fire Kiss' clone of the hybrid Zygopetalum Redvale orchid has appealing potted-plant characteristics, including fragrant flowers that are waxy lime-green and dark maroon with a broad, three-lobed, magenta and white labellum. We performed experiments to quantify how temperature influenced leaf unfolding and expansion, time from visible inflorescence to flower, and longevity of individual flowers and inflorescences. Plants were grown in controlled-environment chambers with constant temperature set points of 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, and 29 °C and an irradiance of 150 μmol·m-2·s-1 for 9 h·d-1. As actual temperature increased from 14 to 25 °C, the time to produce one leaf decreased from 46 to 19 days. Individual plants were also transferred from a greenhouse to the chambers on the date that an inflorescence was first visible or the first flower of an inflorescence opened. Time from visible inflorescence to open flower decreased from 73 days at 14 °C to 30 days at 26 °C. As temperature increased from 14 to 29 °C, flower and inflorescence longevity decreased from 37 and 38 days to 13 and 15 days, respectively. Data were converted to rates, and thermal time models were developed to predict time to flower and senescence at different temperatures. The base temperature was estimated at 6.2 °C for leaf unfolding, 3.5 °C for time to flower, and 3.7 °C for flower longevity. These models could be used by greenhouse growers to more accurately schedule Zygopetalum flowering crops for particular market dates.

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Gerry Moore

, fragrant flowers and large evergreen leaves. This cultivar can be distinguished from other cultivars in Gardenia augusta on the basis of its extremely large (up to 10 cm.) double, fragrant flowers and large evergreen, glossy leaves. It is also quite

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Ming-Chung Liu and Der-Ming Yeh

majority of amaryllis species/cultivars do not have fragrant flowers ( Meerow, 2000 ). Although no genetic analysis has been preformed, Meerow (2009) have drawn two hypotheses: (1) Floral fragrance is a recessive trait and (2) expression of fragrance is

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Robert Polomski

sequence; fragrant flowers; fruit color; fall color; winter interest; shade tolerance; salt tolerance; tolerance to moist or wet soils; tolerance to dry soils; street and urban planting; hedging; evergreens for specimens; grouping; screens and groves