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Chaowei Song, Qi Wang, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva, and Xiaonan Yu

Herbaceous peony, a perennial herb with a cultivation history exceeding 3000 years, is a famous traditional Chinese flower ( Li, 1999 ). It displays graceful petals and abundant colors, and many cultivars have elegant fragrance, an important

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Alan W. Meerow, Stewart T. Reed, Christopher Dunn, and Elena Schnell

After color, fragrance is the second most important phenotypic character in consumer choice of floral products ( Chandler and Brugliera, 2011 ). Flower fragrance is a complex character involving a combination of molecules synthesized endogenously by

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N. Kuanprasert, A.R. Kuehnle, and C.S. Tang

Flowers emit volatile compounds that attract pollinators. In ornamental plant breeding programs, fragrance is a significant character that adds value to flowers for its consumer appeal. In Hawaii, anthurium (Araceae) is an important crop used for cut flowers and flowering potted plants. Unlike other ornamentals, fragrance is not presently associated with commercial anthuriums. However, several anthurium species are known to have distinctive scents. To obtain the novelty trait of fragrance in anthurium, an understanding of anthurium scent genetics, physiology, and chemistry is required. Scented anthurium species and hybrids in the Univ. of Hawaii germplasm collection have been studied. Fragrance emission among species varies with time of day—some species being scented only in the morning, only at night, or all day long. Fragrance emission also varies with stage of spadix development, with some species having scent as pistillate and/or staminate flowers. The species sampled comprise five categories: A. amnicola, A. formosum, and A. lindenianum are minty; A. armeniense is sweet; A. gracile is floral; A. bicollectivum, A. cerrobaulense, A. folsomii, and A. harleyii are fruity; and A. supianum is fishy. Some of the chemical components are illustrated.

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Anna J. Talcott Stewart, Terri Boylston, Lester Wilson, and William R. Graves

Fragrance is a major horticultural feature of ornamental plants ( Giovannini et al., 2021 ). For example, consumers of rose bushes ( Rosa ) rated fragrance as more important than any other attribute except disease resistance ( Waliczek et al

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Laura A. Levin, Kelly M. Langer, David G. Clark, Thomas A. Colquhoun, Jeri L. Callaway, and Howard R. Moskowitz

were identified: 1) flower color; 2) flower shape; 3) flower fragrance; 4) consumer health and wellness; 5) purchase location; and 6) flower use. Six elements or word pictures relevant to each category were then developed (e.g., 1: flower color–A1

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Hyunju Jo, Susan Rodiek, Eijiro Fujii, Yoshifumi Miyazaki, Bum-Jin Park, and Seoung-Won Ann

using natural elements such as sunlight, water, breezes, fragrance, and views of wildlife ( Wagenfeld, 2009 ). Multisensory stimulation has been found to enhance the healing effects of nature, especially for specific users such as children, hospital

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Shea A. Keene, Timothy S. Johnson, Cindy L. Sigler, Terah N. Kalk, Paul Genho, and Thomas A. Colquhoun

cultivars ( American Daylily Society, 2019 ). Over the years, the focus on flower color, pattern, and form in daylily breeding resulted in at least one unfortunate, unintended consequence: the loss of fragrance. Although a number of the daylily species have

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Tina M. Waliczek, Dave Byrne, and Don Holeman

respondents ranking this variable in those categories and nearly no respondents [<2% (5)] rating this as “not important at all” ( Table 1 ). Fragrance was the second most highly ranked attribute, with 62% (967) of respondents ranking this variable as “very

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Stanley J. Kays, Jason Hatch, and Dong Sik Yang

Selection emphasis on cyme size and flower color of Heliotropium arborescens L. has led to cultivars with diminished floral fragrance. As a preliminary inquiry into the fragrance chemistry of the species, we identified 41 volatile compounds emanating from the flowers of 'Marine' via isolation (Tenax trapping) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The majority of the volatile compounds emanating from the flowers were terpenes (camphene, p-cymene, δ-3-carene, α-humulene, δ-1-limonene, linalool, (E)-β-ocimene, α-pinene, and β-thujone), benzenoids of which benzaldehyde was the most abundant, aldehydes (decanal, heptanal, nonanal and octanal), and hydrocarbons (decane, heneicosane, heptadecane, hexadecane, nonadecane, nonane, octadecane, tetradecane, tridecane and undecane) along with a cross-section of other compounds. Subsequent identification and quantification of critical ordorants will facilitate selecting new cultivars with quantitative and qualitative improvements in fragrance.

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Kathleen M. Kelley, Bridget K. Behe, John A. Biernbaum, and Kenneth L. Poff

Two surveys were conducted to assess consumer and professional chefs' perceptions of three edible-flower species. Our objectives were to determine opinions, preferences, and uses of Viola tricolor L. `Helen Mount' (viola), Borago officinalis L. (borage), and Tropaeolum majus L. `Jewel Mix' (nasturtium). Flowers were grown using certifiable organic methods and chosen to reflect a variety of flower tastes, textures, and appearances. We quantified three attributes (taste, fragrance, and visual appeal) with a total of seven semantic, differential scales adapted from a scaling authority. The attributes were rated as: visual—“appealing”, “desirable,” and “very interested in tasting”; fragrance—“appealing” and “pleasant”; and taste—“tasty” and “desirable”. Garden Day participants were self-selected to evaluate and taste flowers from a consumer perspective. When asked to rate the three species on visual appeal and desire, no less than 76% of consumers awarded all flowers an acceptable rating. We found similar results when consumers answered questions regarding the taste of two of the three species. Results from this study support our hypothesis that customers would rate edible flower attributes highly and would be likely to purchase and serve the three species tested. Members of the Michigan Chefs de Cuisine Association participated in a similar survey. At least 66% of these chefs rated the three visual attributes and two fragrance attributes of viola and nasturtium acceptable. Chefs' ratings of the fragrance of borage as “appealing” and “pleasant” were higher than those of consumers, but the ratings were still low, 21% and 25%, respectively. Unlike consumers, chefs' ratings of the taste of viola as “appealing” and “desirable” were low (29% and 36%, respectively). We found some minor differences in ratings when groups were compared, using demographic variables as a basis for segmentation, indicating a homogenous marketing strategy may be employed.