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Sandra B. Wilson and Gary W. Knox

is its ability to self-seed and readily naturalize in areas far beyond its planting. Introduced to Hawaii in 1914, green fountain grass has since escaped cultivation in eight states ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2008 ), including Florida (three

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William K. Harris, Joyce G. Latimer, John F. Freeborn, Margaret Aiken and Holly L. Scoggins

exposure to cold or freezing temperatures than field-grown plants ( Perry, 1998 ). Consequently, some commercial growers in the mid-Atlantic United States experience significant losses of crops such as fountain grass during the overwintering period (I

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S.M. Scheiber, David Sandrock, Erin Alvarez and Meghan M. Brennan

appearance, inflorescence number, growth, and mortality of two ornamental grass species. Materials and methods On 1 July 2005, 68 (34 of each cultivar) 2.5-inch-diameter liners of ‘Gracillimus’ maiden grass and ‘Hamelin’ fountain grass (Emerald Coast Growers

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M. Hockenberry Meyer and Donald B. White

Starch gel electrophoresis was used to screen 10 enzyme systems for variation in fountain grass, Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng. plants exhibiting four different growth habits: dwarf(d), mound(m), prostrate(p), and upright (u). Only phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI; E.C. 5.3.1.9) was found to be polymorphic at one locus, PGI-2, and was expressed as two alleles, which appeared to be associated with growth habit. The dwarf form expressed one slow band (SS), the mound and prostrate forms exhibited one fast band (FF), and the upright form carried triple bands indicating a heterodimer (FS). Hybrids between FF and SS parents were detected as triple bands (FS). Three generations of progeny resulting from 16 crosses and selfs of these growth habits all followed the expected segregation ratios for typical Mendelian inheritance of this isozyme.

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W. Garrett Owen and Roberto G. Lopez

information exists on EOP (before shipping) SL from LEDs to enhance leaf color of greenhouse-grown geranium ‘Black Velvet’ or purple fountain grass. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify and compare the effects of EOP SL from HPS lamps to LEDs

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M. Hockenberry Meyer and D.B. White

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Youping Sun and Alyssa Lanae Palmer

its hardiness and drought tolerance, low maintenance needs, and general beauty ( Kirk and Belt, 2010 ). Fountain grass is a warm-season; fine-textured; mounding perennial grass with narrow, medium- to deep-green leaves; and showy, silvery to pinkish

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Joseph C. Neal and Andrew F. Senesac

Preemergent herbicide phytotoxicity was evaluated for six species of container-grown ornamental grasses: beach grass (Ammophila breviligulata Fern.), pampas grass [Cortaderia selloana (Schult. & Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn.], tufted hair grass [Deschampsia caespitosa (L.) Beauvois.], blue fescue [Festuca ovina cv. glauca (Lam.) W.D.J. Koch], fountain grass [Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.], and ribbon grass (Phalaris arundinacea cv. picta L.). Herbicides included isoxaben, metolachlor, MON 15151, napropamide, oryzalin, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, prodiamine, and trifluralin; the granular combination products of benefin plus trifluralin; and oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin. Metolachlor, granular or spray, and oryzalin severely injured all species tested, except beachgrass, which was not injured by metolachlor granule. Napropamide injured pampas grass, fountain, grass, blue fescue, and tufted hair grass, but was safe on ribbon grass and beach grass. Pendimethalin, prodiamine, trifluralin; MON 15151, isoxaben, oxyfluorfen plus pendimethalin, and benefin plus trifluralin were safe on all six species. Chemical names used: N-butyl-N-ethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine(benefin);N-[3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)5-isoxazolyl]-2,6-dimethoxybenzamide(isoxaben);2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyll-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide (metolachlor); S,S-dimethyl 2-(difluoromethyl)-4-(2-methylpropyl)-6-(trifluoromethyl)-3,5-pyridinedicarbothioate(MON 15151);N,N-diethyl-2-(l-naphthalenyloxy)propanamide (napropamide); 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitro-benzenesulfonamide (oryzalin); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one (oxadiazon); 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzene (oxyfluorfen); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin); N3,N3-di-n-propyl-2,4-dinitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-m-phenylenediamine (prodiamine); 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipropyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine (trifluralin).

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W. Garrett Owen and Roberto G. Lopez

The U.S. commercial wholesale value of ornamental grasses increased by 22% from 2009 to 2014 ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2010 , 2015 ). Most of the ornamental grasses commercially produced are perennials. Purple fountain grass [ P. × advena

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Mack Thetford, Gary W. Knox and Edwin R. Duke

( Panicum virgatum ). The three non-native warm season grasses included ‘Adagio’ maiden grass ( Miscanthus sinensis ), ‘Central Park’ maiden grass ( Miscanthus sinensis ), and ‘Hameln’ chinese fountain grass. Liners of all species were obtained from