the possibility that blueberry could also be sanitized via HY. The objective of this study was to determine the cooling efficiency of HY, FA, and HY plus forced–air cooling (HY + FA), and the effects on quality of southern highbush blueberry fruit
Marcelo A.G. Carnelossi, Edinaldo O.A. Sena, Adrian D. Berry and Steven A. Sargent
Marcos D. Ferreira, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Steven A. Sargent and Craig K. Chandler
Hydrocooling was evaluated as an alternative to forced-air cooling for strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit. `Sweet Charlie' strawberries were cooled by forced-air and hydrocooling to 4 °C and held in different storage regimes in three different trials. Quality attributes, including surface color, firmness, weight loss, soluble solids, and ascorbic acid content, pH and total titratable acidity, were evaluated at the full ripe stage. Fruit hydrocooled to 4 °C and stored at different temperatures for 8 or 15 days showed overall better quality than forced-air cooled fruit, with significant differences in epidermal color, weight loss, and incidence and severity of decay. Fruit stored wrapped in polyvinylchloride (PVC) film after forced-air cooling or hydrocooling retained better color, lost less weight, and retained greater firmness than fruit stored uncovered, but usually had increased decay. There is potential for using hydrocooling as a cooling method for strawberries.
Jerry C. Leyte and Charles F. Forney
Forced-air cooling rates of highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) packaged in 6-oz (177-mL) or 1-pt (473-mL) clamshell containers were affected by positions of vent holes in corrugated flats. Most rapid cooling occurred in flats with vents across the top of the flat. Additional vents aligned in front of clamshells resulted in more rapid and uniform cooling than vents placed between clamshells. Vent holes in the bottom of flats had no effect on cooling rates. Clamshells cooled more slowly in the front of the pallet where cold air entered than in the back of the pallet where cold air exited. Fruit in 6-oz clamshells cooled faster than fruit in 1-pt clamshells.
M.D. Ferreira, J.K. Brecht, S.A. Sargent and C.K. Chandler
`Sweet Charlie' strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) harvested at full ripe stage were 7/8-cooled by forced-air or hydrocooling to 4C, then held with or without a PVC film wrap in one of three storage regimes: 1) 7 days at 1C plus 1 day at 20C; 2) 7 days at 1C plus 7 days at 7C plus 1 day at 20C, or; 3) 7 days at 1C plus 5 days at 15C plus 2 days at 7C plus 1 day at 20C. Quality attributes, including surface color, firmness, weight loss, soluble solids and ascorbic acid content, pH, and titratable acidity, were evaluated after storage. Hydrocooled berries were better in overall quality, with better color retention, less weight loss, and lower incidence and severity of decay compared to forced-air-cooled berries. Strawberries wrapped in PVC film retained better color and had less weight loss and greater firmness, but greater incidence and severity of decay than berries stored uncovered. These results indicate good potential for using hydrocooling as a cooling method for strawberries.
Jeffrey K. Brecht, Steven A. Sargent and L. A. Risse
Snap beans were room cooled (RC) or forced-air cooled (FA) in a 4.5°C commercial cold storage room, or hydrocooled (HC) in a commercial flume-type unit with 4°C water containing 175 ppm NaOCl. The beans were packed in wirebound wooden crates (WC) or waxed corrugated fiberboard cartons (FC) before (RC, FA) or after (HC) precooking and stored one week at 10°C before evaluation. Ascorbic acid, chlorophyll and fiber contents did not differ among treatments, while moisture content and per cent unshrivelled beans were lowest in FA and highest in HC, and lower in WC than in FC containers. HC reduced development of mechanical damage symptoms (browning) and decay compared to RC and FA. The former effect was attributable to the presence of NaOCl rather than leaching or increased cooling rate in HC. HC beans packed in FC had the highest per cent sound beans and lowest per cent beans showing mechanical damage symptoms of all the treatment combinations tested.
Jaysankar De, Aswathy Sreedharan, You Li, Alan Gutierrez, Jeffrey K. Brecht, Steven A. Sargent and Keith R. Schneider
harvest with improved preservation of natural blueberry quality during storage, distribution, and export. Florida blueberries are typically subjected to forced-air cooling (FAC) to an intermediate temperature of ≈16 °C in field lugs soon after harvest
M.C.N. Nunes, A.M.M.B. Morais, J.K. Brecht, S.A. Sargent and J.A. Bartz
Delays in initiating the cooling of freshly harvested `Chandler' strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa) were compared with prompt cooling to determine how such handling affected development of postharvest decays during subsequent storage and marketing. Strawberries at the three-quarter to full red ripeness stages were harvested four times between mid-June and late July, inoculated with Botrytis cinerea or Rhizopus stolonifer and then handled to simulate prompt or delayed precooling prior to storage. This was done by incubating fruit at 35 °C (95.0 °F) and 70% to 80% relative humidity (RH) for 1 or 6 hours. The fruit were then forced-air cooled to 5 °C (41.0 °F) in 1 hour and stored for 7 days at 2 °C (35.6 °F) and 85% to 95% RH, plus displayed in a simulated market at 20 °C (68.0 °F) and 85% RH for 1 day. Decay incidence increased as the season progressed. For non-inoculated fruit, prompt cooling reduced the incidence of decay by an average of 25% and the decay severity by ∼24%. With inoculated fruit, prompt cooling resulted in 15% and 29% decreases in the incidence and severity, respectively, of rhizopus rot compared to delayed cooling, and 5% and 22% decreases in the incidence and severity, respectively, of botrytis rot. Overall, the incidence of botrytis and rhizopus fruit rot averaged 60% and 85% in the prompt and delayed cooling treatments, respectively. Although prompt cooling is important for minimizing postharvest decay of strawberries, temperature management alone may not sufficiently control postharvest decay when decay pressure is high.
Marcos D. Ferreira, Steven A. Sargent, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Craig K. Chandler
be related to the turgor pressure of the fruit cells. Forced-air cooling rapidly removes field heat by creating a difference in air pressure on opposite faces of palletized produce. The resulting high-volume air is humidified to greater than 90
Andrew J. Macnish, Malkeet S. Padda, Francine Pupin, Pavlos I. Tsouvaltzis, Angelos I. Deltsidis, Charles A. Sims, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Elizabeth J. Mitcham
transported by a flatbed truck to one of two cooling facilities in Watsonville, CA. Fruit were transferred to a cooler for forced-air cooling within 2 h of harvest. Sample preparation. Palletized fruit from the same farm were transferred to a 32 °F cold room
Peter M.A. Toivonen
indicators of sweet cherry. Thus sweet cherries must be cooled after packing to bring their temperature down to a value that will ensure the best quality at distant markets when shipped by container. This can best be accomplished by forced-air cooling of