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Christopher J. Currey, Ann Marie VanDerZanden and Joshua J. Mitchell

Food security on a global and local level is becoming increasingly discussed. The ability to meet food security and nutrition goals require food to be available, accessible, and in sufficient quantity and quality to meet the demand of an ever

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Laura Irish, Cynthia Haynes and Denny Schrock

Food security is defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) as not always having access to foods that promote a healthful and active lifestyle. It affected more than 10.6%, or 331,000, Iowans annually between 2013 and 2015 ( USDA, 2017

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Tim D. Davis, Eric M. Bost and Carmen N. Byce

). Agricultural development is also crucial in allowing Myanmar to reach food security in ways that will improve lives while expanding economic growth. Horticulture will be an important component for achieving food security and improving human nutrition. Although

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Celina Gómez, Christopher J. Currey, Ryan W. Dickson, Hye-Ji Kim, Ricardo Hernández, Nadia C. Sabeh, Rosa E. Raudales, Robin G. Brumfield, Angela Laury-Shaw, Adam K. Wilke, Roberto G. Lopez and Stephanie E. Burnett

issues in our food system (e.g., reduced dependence on fossil fuels, increased food security) and promote social and environmental cohesion ( Peterson et al., 2015 ). CEs have tremendous potential for commercial urban food production. The high plant

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Georgina D. Arthur, Adeyemi O. Aremu, Manoj G. Kulkarni and Johannes Van Staden

As a result of the growing concerns about the adverse effect of chemicals on the environment, agricultural practices involving organic and environmental-friendly compounds are gaining acceptance globally. Tomatoes remain one of the most popular and widely grown vegetable crops. However, their growth requires a high supplement of nitrogen–phosphorus–potassium (NPK) fertilizer. The effectiveness of vermicompost leachate (VCL) as a potential replacement for the three elements (N, P, and K) during the growth of greenhouse tomatoes was evaluated. Morphological appearance of the tomato seedlings was remarkably enhanced when Hoagland’s nutrient solution (50%) was supplemented with VCL (1:10 v/v). In the absence of both P and K, the addition of VCL significantly (P = 0.05) increased various growth parameters such as shoot length, leaf number as well as shoot and root fresh weight compared with the control tomato seedlings. The detrimental effect of N deficiency on the growth of tomato seedlings was not alleviated with the addition of VCL to the nutrient solution. The photosynthetic pigment content in P-deficient and VCL-supplemented tomato seedlings was significantly higher than the untreated control. The presence of VCL alleviated the detrimental effects caused by deficiency of P and K during the growth of the tomato seedlings. Overall, the use of VCL was beneficial with either complete nutrient solution or in the absence of P and K. Findings of this study suggest that VCL could serve as a potential substitute for P and K deficiency.

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Rukundo Placide, Hussein Shimelis, Mark Laing and Daphrose Gahakwa

change aggravates the biotic and abiotic stresses on food crops ( Tester and Langridge, 2010 ). These environmental changes will negatively affect crop production and food security. Therefore, novel mitigation strategies are required to boost crop

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Rhuanito S. Ferrarezi, Stuart A. Weiss, Thomas C. Geiger and K. Paul Beamer

Snow pea (Pisum sativum var. saccharatum) and sugar snap pea (P. sativum var. macrocarpon) are high-value crops typically grown in temperate regions. Temperature is the main limiting factor to growing edible-pod peas in warmer U.S. states and territories. The objective was to evaluate edible-pod peas performance in tropical climates and to make cultivar recommendations to farmers in the U.S. Virgin Islands based on fruit yield. Trials were performed in two consecutive years (2014 and 2015), testing six cultivars of edible-pod peas: three snow pea (Little Sweetie, Mammoth Melting, and Oregon Giant) and three sugar snap pea (Super Sugar Snap, Cascadia, and Sugar Sprint) in a complete randomized block with four replications. ‘Little Sweetie’ produced the highest total fruit yield for the season (15,442 kg·ha−1) and ‘Mammoth Melting’ (4249 kg·ha−1) and ‘Sugar Sprint’ (3349 kg·ha−1) produced the lowest total fruit yield in Year 1. The same trend happened in Year 2, where ‘Little Sweetie’ (14,322 kg·ha−1) and ‘Super Sugar Snap’ (12,511 kg·ha−1) were higher yielding and ‘Mammoth Melting’ (4582 kg·ha−1) and ‘Sugar Sprint’ (1929 kg·ha−1) were the lowest yielding cultivars. ‘Mammoth Melting’ showed a marketable yield below 80% of total yield in Years 1 and 2. ‘Mammoth Melting’ and ‘Super Sugar Snap’ produced the tallest plants in Year 1, while ‘Mammoth Melting’ was significantly taller than the others in Year 2. As expected, sugar snap pea presented fruit soluble solids concentration (SSC) 2.7% to 6.5% higher than snow pea. The snow pea cultivars had longer mean fruit length (81 to 86 mm) than sugar snap pea (60 to 68 mm). The opposite trend occurred with fruit thickness; sugar snap pea averaged 28.5% thicker than snow pea. The shoot dry weight of ‘Sugar Sprint’ was on average 78.5% smaller than ‘Mammoth Melting’ and ‘Oregon Giant’, resulting in poor performance due to small plant size. ‘Mammoth Melting’ and ‘Super Sugar Snap’ had the lowest chlorophyll content compared with the other cultivars. Results of this experiment indicate that edible-pod peas have potential as a specialty, short-season, high-value crop when grown in the cool–dry winter months of the U.S. Virgin Islands. Of the cultivars tested, Little Sweetie was the highest yielding cultivar evaluated within the environmental and geographical conditions of this study for two consecutive years.

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Chi M. Do, Kate L. Delaporte, Vinay Pagay and Carolyn J. Schultz

., 2015 ), have been identified by screening wild accessions. Other efforts to increase global food security include identifying new crops that can grow productively under saline conditions, such as quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa ) and saltbushes ( Atriplex

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Theodore J. Kisha and Christopher S. Cramer

, limiting redundancy in the collection, and maximizing genetic diversity in a collection that remains manageable in size. Maintaining viable germplasm collections is essential to world food security but comes at a cost. Redundancy within the collection can

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Oluwatimilehin (Timi) Smith-Kayode

Integrated postharvest system comprising the fresh-market and juice processing from citrus fruits was the model system selected to evaluate gender participation in fruit agribusiness in Nigeria. This was in realization of the role of women in family support and food security. Results showed 60% of the labor force engaged in citrus processing and fresh fruit marketing are women. Fruit retailing involves partial processing through peeling and short-term modified-atmosphere packaging, while key unit operations of processing cover juice production, handling, and quality control. Retail activities attract higher income relative to factory work. Implications of seasonality in fruit supply in terms of income generation, employment, rural development, and strategies to empower the gender for greater productivity are discussed in the presentation.