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Martin M. Maboko and Christian P. Du Plooy

very efficient method of plant nutrition during the intensive growth stages ( Giskin et al., 1984 ; Komosa, 1990 ; Mengel, 2002 ). Foliar fertilizer application is a technique using foliar sprays to provide the nutrients at the actual site of activity

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Martin M. Maboko, Christian Phillipus Du Plooy, and Silence Chiloane

supplement, foliar fertilizer application is gaining popularity among growers as a standard practice in agricultural crop production because it is more purposeful and environmentally friendly as opposed to soil fertilization ( Maboko and Du Plooy, 2017

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R. Paul Schreiner and Carolyn F. Scagel

roots (defoliation or shading) and P in shoots (foliar fertilizer application). Foliar fertilizer was used here as opposed to soil fertilizer to separate potential direct effects of mineral nutrients on AMF from plant-mediated effects. After showing that

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Naohiro Kubota and Mayumi Miyamuki

Four dormant grapevine (Vitis spp.) cultivars grown under forced conditions were treated immediately after pruning with a paste of fresh garlic, the supernatant of a 20% suspension of CaCN2, and 50% `Merit' solution a foliar fertilizer, to break bud dormancy. Garlic paste significantly accelerated budbreak and increased the rate of budbreak in three cultivars, but for `Delaware,' CaCN2 was more effective. Garlic also affected budbreak of cuttings with a single bud of `Kyoho,' `Neo Muscat,' or `Muscat Bailey A' grapes in a deep stage of dormancy. Garlic paste applied to cool `Muscat of Alexandria' vines immediately after they were pruned in various stages of dormancy (from November to March) accelerated budbreak in the spring when application was made by January. The rate of budbreak was steady, but earlier CaCN2 treatments resulted in a rate of budbreak that was not uniform, although the first budbreak was accelerated. Low concentrations of garlic juice did not promote budbreak of cuttings of `Muscat of Alexandria'. When garlic paste was applied to various parts of cuttings with two buds, budbreak was accelerated when the upper cross-section was treated, but the overall rate of budbreak was highest when the lower half of the cutting was treated. Chemical name used: calcium cyanamide (CaCN2).

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Regina L. Reickenberg and Marvin P. Pritts

The dynamics of nutrient uptake from foliar applied 15N-urea and Rb (a K analog) were quantified in red raspberries. Both N and Rb in an aqueous solution were absorbed rapidly into the leaf and transported throughout the plant. In the greenhouse, about half of the urea and a third of the Rb were absorbed within 32 hours of application. The addition of a surfactant to the foliar solution reduced uptake, while solution pH, time of application and leaf age had little effect. The lower leaf surface exhibited a faster rate of absorption than the upper surface, but the difference was not large. In the field, some foliar N appeared to have been washed off leaves and taken up by the root system; however, none of the foliar applications affected plant growth. We conclude that significant uptake of foliar applied N and K occurs in raspberry, but the absolute amount delivered through a single foliar application is small. The percentage of total plant nutrient supplied through a foliar application is reduced to < 5% over time as the plant grows, so multiple applications would be required to maintain levels significantly higher than would exist through root uptake alone.

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Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Georgios Tsoggarakis, Aimilia-Eleni Nikolopoulou, and Dimitrios Gourlias

Two field studies (winter and summer) were performed to evaluate the effect of three different fertilizer programs and a urea formaldehyde resin foam (UFRF) soil amendment on sod establishment and anchorage. Fertilizer treatments involved were 1) a quick release (QR) granular fertilizer (12-12-17); 2) a slow release (SR) fertilizer (27-5-7); and 3) a foliar (FL) fertilizer (20-20-20). The application rate was 50, 30, 0.35 g·m-2 for QR, SR, and FL, respectively. The substrate consisted of sandy loam soil, and in half of the plots UFRF flakes were incorporated in the upper 100 mm at a rate of 20% v/v. The effects of the fertilizer and soil amendment on sod establishment were evaluated through measurements of the dry weight of clippings and roots and the visual quality of the turf. Sod anchorage was measured by determination of the vertical force required to detach a piece of sod. For each treatment the initial and final pH, EC, available P, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Fe were also determined. It was found that FL reduced clipping yield but retained turf visual quality similar to the other fertilizer treatments except in winter, when it resulted in the worst quality ratings. However, FL fertilizer promoted root growth and provided high vertical detachment force values and therefore enhanced sod establishment. Slow release fertilizer resulted in moderate top growth and visual quality of the turf during winter, but delayed sod establishment. Quick release fertilizer increased top growth and improved turfgrass visual quality during the winter, but root growth and vertical detachment force were reduced, indicating poorer sod establishment. UFRF did not enhance sod establishment since there was a negative effect on root growth when temperatures were below 10 °C, without however affecting vertical detachment force. Differences in soil P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe between treatments were inconsistent between the two studies, except for final K concentration, which was higher for QR fertilization than SR and FL. Foliar fertilization can enhance sod establishment compared to QR and SR, by accelerating sod anchorage and root growth. QR can be used in late autumn to improve winter green up of the sod. UFRF does not improve or accelerate sod establishment and possesses a minimal capacity to improve soil properties of sandy loam soils.

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Letizia Tozzini, Paolo Sabbatini, and G. Stanley Howell

Viticulture in Michigan is often limited by cool and humid climate conditions that impact vine growth and the achievement of adequate fruit quality at harvest. Sugars, pH, acids, and yeast available nitrogen (YAN) are indices of quality and, as such, of suitability for wine production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of foliar nitrogen (N) fertilization applied as a 1% w/v urea solution at veraison as a method to increase canopy N availability during the fruit ripening stage. To test the effect on different source sink conditions, we imposed three levels of defoliation (0%, 33%, and 66% of leaves removed per vine) and measured net photosynthetic rate (Pn), leaf efficiency parameters, yield components, and fruit quality parameters. Apical leaf Pn was increased by the 33% defoliation (+12% from the undefoliated control) and by the urea application (+6%) 2 weeks after veraison. In basal leaves we observed a reduction in chlorophyll content (SPAD) and maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) as a result of the defoliation treatment and secondarily by the N application, which resulted in a reduction in Pn. Therefore, mean shoot Pn was unaffected by the treatments. Although neither main nor lateral shoot growth was increased by any defoliation treatment, both percent soluble solids (%SS) and berry weight were significantly reduced by the 66% defoliation treatment. Application of urea increased yeast available amino acids by 20% but did not impact %SS or other chemical parameters indicating a different accumulation pathway for sugars and amino acids in the berry.

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Carol J. Lovatt

that must be applied to the soil to achieve the same yield ( PureGro Co., n.d. ). The cost of foliar fertilization is frequently associated with application cost. However, by properly timing the application of foliar fertilizers to key stages of crop

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Xing-Zheng Fu, Fei Xing, Li Cao, Chang-Pin Chun, Li-Li Ling, Cai-Lun Jiang, and Liang-Zhi Peng

effect of chemical Zn. In addition, we tested the roles of agricultural organosilicone surfactant in improving the foliar fertilizer absorption efficiency and correcting effect. Organosilicone surfactant is recognized as an adjuvant with super spreading

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Liming Chen, Heping Zhu, Leona Horst, Matthew Wallhead, Michael Reding, and Amy Fulcher

two ornamental nurseries are shown in Table 1 . Pesticide and foliar fertilizer usages during each growing season were also recorded for both intelligent and conventional spray applications. Assessments of insect pests and diseases. Populations of